Latif Saeed Noori Berzenji. The Reality-Ideal Conflict in Joseph Conrad's Works. Cee Bee Publishers, 2001.

"This book is an analytical study of the eternal clash between illusion and reality in the works of Conrad. Seeing through the hypocrisy of the Western world, Conrad was able to project through fictional themes his experience, that behind the ideal of spreading Christianity and European civilization there lay the power-hungry materialism of the West. This study attempts to establish that through his pre-occupation with the profound problem of evil Conrad uncovers the varied forms and facets of evil in humanity, in society, in nature, and in the universe, tracing at great length the moral repercussions of the discovery of evil in all these forms. More specifically, this study attempts to explore Conrad's vision of the ideal, placing it against his concept of reality. Berzenji argues that critics have hinted at this vision but few have attempted to analyse it in detail, focusing only on those of his major works that embody this vision in which he has tried to depict the human predicament confronting the reality-ideal tension. Berzenji first tries to define this concept from its earliest formulation by Plato and then traces its development to modern times, placing Conrad's vision in this context. Berzenji then deals with the psycho-political depiction of men who set sail for Utopia but were turned back by disaster and futility. In other words the Europeans saw the colonization of Africa as ultimately bringing good to the natives. Conrad, however, was aware that behind the idealized task of spreading Christianity and European civilization there lay the reality of a base, cunning and power-hungry materialism. Berzenji goes on to consider the conflict between an individual's misty ideals and the harsher aspects of reality: the oppressive facets of society, the destructive elements of nature and the darker psychological forces of human nature all of which bear down on an idealistic nature. Berzenji concludes by attempting to define Conrad's own vision of idealism and how it is mirrored various of his works."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Harold Bloom, ed.Bloom's Major Short Story Writers: Joseph Conrad. Chelsea House, 2001.

"This research and study guide is an introduction to critical analysis of a selection of Conrad's short stories. This book covers four short works (Heart of Darkness, 'Typhoon,' 'The Secret Sharer,' and The Shadow-Line), offering a variety of viewpoints by different critics on important aspects of each work. This volume also includes a biography of Conrad, a summary of each story's plot, a listing of additional critical works about the stories, a complete bibliography of Conrad's work, and an index of important themes and ideas."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Gail Fincham and Attie M. de Lange with Wieslaw Krajka, eds. Conrad at the Millennium: Modernism, Postmodernism, Postcolonialism. Social Science Monographs, 2001.

"This collection is international and interdisciplinary in scope drawing on a large range of theoretical perspectives ranging from archival scholarship to cultural geography and film studies. There are four sections: Modernism and Modernity; Postmodernism: Intertextuality; Postmodernism: Gaze, Vision and Voice; and Postcolonialism."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Andrew Mozina. Joseph Conrad and the Art of Sacrifice: The Evolution of the Scapegoat Theme in Joseph Conrad's Fiction. Routledge, 2001.

"This book explores the importance of sacrifice in Conrad's major fiction, both as a theme and in Conrad's stance as a writer, showing how his biography, politics, and literary background shaped his treatment of the problem."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  John G. Peters. Conrad and Impressionism. Cambridge University Press, 2001.

"In this book, Peters investigates the impact of Impressionism on Conrad and links this to his literary techniques as well as his philosophical and political views. Impressionism, Peters argues, enabled Conrad to encompass both surface and depth not only in visually perceived phenomena but also in his narratives and objects of consciousness, be they physical objects, human subjects, events or ideas. Though Conrad was thought of as a sceptical writer, Peters suggests that through Impressionism he developed a coherent and mostly traditional view of ethical and political principles, a claim he attempts to support through reference to a broad range of Conrad's texts. Conrad and Impressionism investigates the sources and implications of Conrad's impressionism in order to argue for a consistent link among his literary technique, philosophical presuppositions and socio-political views. The same core ideas concerning the nature of human experience run throughout his works."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Daniel R. Schwarz. Rereading Conrad. University of Missouri Press, 2001.

"Rereading Conrad attempts to shed new light on an author who has spoken to readers for over a century. Schwarz's essays take account of recent developments in theory and cultural studies, including postcolonial, feminist, gay, and ecological perspectives, and show how reading Conrad has changed in the face of the theoretical explosion that has occurred over the past two decades. Schwarz assembles his work from over the past two decades into one volume, reexamining a seminal figure who continues to be a major focus in the twenty-first century. Schwarz touches on virtually all of Conrad's works, including his masterworks and the later, relatively neglected fiction."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Linda Dryden. Joseph Conrad and the Imperial Romance. St. Martin's Press, 2000.

"In this study, Dryden places four of his early Malay tales in the context of the literature of imperial romance and adventure that was enjoying great popularity when Conrad began his literary career. Conrad's early Malay fiction reflects his seafaring experiences in the East and expresses his misgivings about the assumptions of 'white superiority,' of imperial power, and of the possibilities for romantic heroism that characterize the late nineteenth-century imperial romance. In fact Conrad was deeply sceptical about its promises of wealth, glory, and heroic reputation. Dryden explores how Conrad used and subverted these tales of Empire to offer an unsettling vision of the imperial experience in Malaya. In Almayer's Folly and An Outcast of the Islands, Conrad challenges the romantic aspirations of his characters; in 'Karain' he deliberately exploits the formula of imperial romance; and in Lord Jim he exposes the fragility of the notion of romantic heroism and gentlemanly conduct. Using illustrations from and references to many well-known novels of Empire, such as Rider Haggard's Allan Quatermain, Dryden demonstrates how Conrad's early Malay fiction alludes to the conventions and stereotypes of popular imperial fiction."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Peter Edgerly Firchow. Envisioning Africa: Racism and Imperialism in Conrad's Heart of Darkness. University Press of Kentucky, 2000.

"For one hundred years Heart of Darkness has been among the most widely read and taught novels in the English language. Hailed as an incisive indictment of European imperialism in Africa upon its publication in 1899, in recent years it has been repeatedly denounced as racist and imperialist. Firchow attempts to counter these claims. His response is meant to allow the charges of Conrad's alleged bias to be evaluated as objectively as possible. He begins by contrasting the meanings of race, racism, and imperialism in Conrad's day to those of our own time. Firchow then reminds the reader that Heart of Darkness is a novel rather than a sociological treatise and argues that only in relation to its aesthetic significance can real social and intellectual-historical meaning be established.¬  Envisioning Africa responds in detail to negative interpretations of the novel by trying to reveal what they distort, misconstrue, or fail to take into account. Firchow uses the framework of imagology to examine how national, ethnic, and racial images are portrayed in the text, differentiating the idea of a national stereotype from that of national character. He believes that what Conrad saw personally in Africa should not be confused with the Africa he describes in the novel; Heart of Darkness is instead an envisioning and a revisioning of Conrad's experiences in the medium of fiction."

¬ ¬ ¬  Robert Hampson. Cross-Cultural Encounters in Joseph Conrad's Malay Fiction. Palgrave, 2000.

"This book examines Conrad's Malay fiction and focuses on cross-cultural encounters, cultural identity and cultural dislocation in Conrad's Malay fiction , paying particular attention to issues of 'race' and gender. It also situations Conrad's writings about Malaysia in relation to earlier English accounts of the archipelago.¬  It considers work by Mundy, Keppel, Wallace and Clifford, which Conrad had read, as well as exploring the discursive formation within which that work was produced.¬  At the same time, it also indicates something of the region's history of cross-cultural encounters.¬  This books draws on new historicism, as well as postcolonial and postmodern theory, to explore the central problem that Conrad addressed in his fiction: how to represent another culture."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Owen Knowles and Gene M. Moore. Oxford Reader's Companion to Conrad. Oxford University Press, 2000.

"This volume is the first comprehensive and authoritative reference to distill in a lively, readable way a vast range of information on Conrad's life, works, reputation, and the historical and cultural contexts in which he lived. There are entries on all of Conrad's works, the people he knew, places he visited, and also on such topics as dictation, health, operas, ships, and various schools of Conrad scholarship. Much of the material in the Companionis entirely new, compiled from scattered Conrad resources, many of which have never been published before. The authors, together with a small team of specialist contributors, have brought together the latest findings of modern scholarship to provide an unparalleled resource for all Conrad enthusiasts, one which summarizes and makes available in convenient form the results of the first century of Conrad studies."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Michael A. Lucas. Aspects of Conrad's Literary Language. Social Science Monographs, 2000.

"Why did Joseph Conrad avoid using English, except when it came to the arduous task of writing fiction? And how do we account for his extensive 'borrowing' from French writers? This psycholinguistic examination delves into the creative mind of Conrad in an attempt to decipher his learning and use of three languages, Polish, French, and English. Following a trail of syntactical eccentricities and considerable stylistic variations, Lucas shows how these features interact to produce Conrad's idiosyncratic style."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Gene M. Moore, Allan H. Simmons, and J. H. Stape, eds. Conrad between the Lines: Document in a Life. Rodopi, 2000.

"This volume makes available a variety of texts by Conrad's friends and contemporaries, ranging from a sailing memoir by his oldest English friend to a dramatic adaptation of his novel Victory, and from his secretary's notebook to his last will and testament. Often mentioned or cited by scholars, these texts are here published in full for the first time. They also reveal Conrad speaking 'between the lines' in various voices, and raise theoretical questions about the social nature of authorship and the construction of authorial canons. Essays include G. F. W. Hope, 'Friend of Conrad'; 'The "Knopf Document": Transcriptions and Commentary'; Basil MacDonald Hastings, 'Victory'; Wilfred Partington, 'Joseph Conrad Behind the Scenes'; Richard Curle, 'The History of Mr. Conrad's Books'; L. M. Hallowes, 'Note Book of Joseph Conrad'; 'Conrad's Last Will and Testament.'"

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Andrew Michael Roberts. Conrad and Masculinity. Palgrave, 2000.

"This study offers a radical rereading of Conrad's work in light of contemporary  theories of masculinity. Drawing on feminism, gay studies, film theory and  literary theory, the author shows that Conrad's fiction, even as it  reflects certain assumptions of its day about gender roles, offers  inquiries into the instability of the 'masculine.' The book explores the relationship masculinity with imperialism, modernity, the  visual and the body in a wide range of Conrad's less-known fiction."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Allan H. Simmons and J. H. Stape, eds. Lord Jim: Centennial Essays. Rodopi, 2000.

"Lord Jim: Centennial Essays features eight essays by Conrad scholars to celebrate the centenary of the publication of what is possibly Conrad's best-known novel. This carefully edited volume covers a wide range of topics, and includes new work on the novel's reception and sources, narrative strategies, and thematic interests. Various contemporary critical approaches--Bakhtinian, postcolonial, and historicist--are aired and reconsidered, and a generous selection of documents relating to the Jeddah affair of 1880 sheds light on Conrad's use of real-life materials. The kaleidoscopic perspectives brought to bear on this landmark of literary Modernism is meant to stimulate and challenge both scholars and students alike."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Ian Watt. Essays on Conrad. Cambridge University Press, 2000.

"Watt has long been acknowledged as one of the finest of postwar literary critics, and among the most learned of those writing about the work of Conrad. Essays on Conrad is a collection of Watt's most characteristic essays on Conrad's work. Watt's own philosophy, as well as his insight into Conrad's work, was shaped by his experiences as a prisoner of war on the River Kwai. His account of these experiences completes this essential collection of Watt essays."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Beth Sharon Ash. Writing in Between: Modernity and Psychosocial Dilemma in the Novels of Joseph Conrad. St. Martin's Press, 1999.

"Ash develops a theoretical framework for interpreting Conrad's signal texts and his situation as an author. Using relational psychoanalysis, Ashe reinserts into the literary conversation the idea of the psychologically inflected subject.¬  She integrates authorial and fictional subjectivity with specific historical contexts, thus lending agency and density to the 'relational subject' without neglecting the social forces which shape it. Organized around the thematics of unfinished mourning, this book carefully positions Conrad¬  as a writer caught 'in between,' as both a figure of alienation disenchanted with British imperialism, and an orphan of genius desiring a fit with his adopted culture. Through readings of Conrad's novels and broad analyses of psychoanalytic and modernist criticisms, Ash attempts to refocus how one reads Conrad and re-theorize the subject and its literary relations."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Yuan-Jung Cheng. Heralds of the Postmodern: Madness and Fiction in Conrad, Woolf and Lessing. Peter Lang, 1999.

"Heralds of the Postmodern inquires into the possibility of a poetics of madness in Heart of Darkness, Mrs. Dalloway, and The Golden Notebook. By relating the literary expression of the irrational in these works to the philosophical attempt to overcome the subject and rationality in the writings of Nietzsche, Foucault, and Derrida, the book presents modern fiction as an arena in which struggles between reason and madness, limitation and transgression, 'self' and 'other' are fully displayed. It investigates how modern literature subverts traditional metaphysics by exploring the realm of the other reason and the new forms of subjectivity."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Daphna Erdnast-Vulcan. The Strange Short Fiction of Joseph Conrad: Writing, Culture and Subjectivity. Oxford University Press, 1999.

"This study engages with the troubled question of authorial subjectivity and ethics in Modernism in general and in Conrad's short fiction in particular, and offers a theoretical perspective, inspired by the work of Derrida and the early philosophical writings of M. M. Bakhtin. Part I of the book focuses on the relational dynamics of Under Western Eyes and 'The Secret Sharer' and develops a 'heterobiographical' reading matrix which serves as a psycho-textual and philosophical approach to modes of authorial presence in the text. Part II offers close readings of ten short stories spanning the whole of Conrad's career and clustered into five chapter--'Writing and Fratricide,' 'The Pathos of Authenticity,' 'The Poetics of Cultural Despair,' 'The Romantic Paradox,' and 'Addressing the Woman.' This part of the book engages with the interpretative problems posed by these stories through a cultural-historical perspective, linking Conrad's essentially Romantic sensibility and his unique position on the threshold of Modernism with some of the issues that have emerged from the 'Postmodern turn': the relationship between metaphysics and subjectivity, the conception of inter-subjectivity as prior to and constitutive of subjectivity; the permeability of textual and psychological boundary-lines; and the desire for subjective aesthetization. These issues which can all be traced back to the cultural crisis of the turn of the century, are still with us at the close of the millennium."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Chris Fletcher. Joseph Conrad. Oxford University Press, [1999].

"Polish-born Joseph Conrad is widely considered to be one of the finest masters of the English language. His life at sea and in foreign ports around the world furnished most of the material for his books, which include Lord Jim, The Secret Agent, and perhaps his best-known story, 'Heart of Darkness.' This illustrated volume provides a look at this complex author and draws materials from the British Library's collection of literary manuscripts and many other sources to narrate the background to Conrad's early family life, his voyages and later years as a writer in England."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  V. T. Girdhari. Novels of Joseph Conrad: The Individual and the World of Human Relationships. Prestige, 1999.

"This book attempts a socio-philosophic evaluation of Conrad as a novelist by a systematic and close examination of the relationship between the individual and the world around him, in his fiction. It presents Conrad, not as a pessimist or a nihilist, but as a positive philosopher having infinite faith in human existence. Girdhari argues that Conrad's novels mark a pattern of 'evolution' of the mind of an individual from personal to social awareness. The purpose of this book is to view the growth of this process in the perspective of the inner consciousness of Conrad's protagonists in response to the outside world of human relationships. Girdhari argues that loneliness, for Conrad, poses a serious threat to human existence.¬  Consequently, his protagonists open up into the world outside in order tin interact with the species of their kind. According to Girdhari, an individual, in isolation, cannot survive without relating oneself to other members and institutions of the society. One has to emerge out of oneself and rise to a level of perfection through love, compassion and sacrifice. It is the attainment of this state that eventually gives one a sense of fulfillment and a joy of salvation, and thus Conrad had a deep trust in the ultimate value of human relationships."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Susan Jones. Conrad and Women. Clarendon Press, 1999.

"Supported by an enduring critical paradigm, the traditional account of Conrad's career privileges his public image as a man of the sea, addressing himself to a male audience and male concerns. This book challenges received assumptions by recovering Conrad's relationship to women not only in his life but in his fiction and among his readers. The existing interplay of criticism, biography, and marketing has contributed to a masculinist image associated with a narrow body of modernist texts. Instead, Jones attempts to reinstate the female influences arising from hs early Polish life and culture; his friendship with the French writer Marguerite Poradowska; his engagement with popular women's writing; and his experimentation with visuality as his later work appears in the visual contexts of 'women's pages' of popular journals. By foregrounding less familiar novels such as Chance and the neglected Suspense, she emphasises the range and continuity of Conrad's concerns, showing that his later discussions of gender and genre often originate in the period of the 'great' sea tales. Conrad also emerges as an acute reader and critic of popular forms, while his unexpected entry into important contemporary debates about female identity invites us to rethink the nature of his contribution to modernism."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Weislaw Krajka. Joseph Conrad: East European, Polish and Worldwide. East European Monographs, 1999.

"A collection of essays written by Conrad scholars from all corners of the world, this book deals with (1) Joseph Conrad's East European and Polish contexts and (2) Joseph Conrad's imperial and American contexts, as well as selected ethical-philosophical and textological-narrative issues. A wide spectrum of themes and aspects of the literary output of Joseph Conrad is addressed as well: from ethical issues to mythical organization of Conradian universe, from analysis of the method of narration to textological studies, from parallels with Whitman and Turgenev to the influence of Dostoevsky and of Polish romantic literature, from post-Freudian to feminist Dutch literature on Indonesia to examination in terms of Indian philosophy of Sri Aurobindo, from mythical anthropological readings of the influence of Polish ethnos and culture to application of elements of Jewish folklore."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Leonard Orr and Ted Billy, eds. A Joseph Conrad Companion. Greenwood, 1999.

"Conrad¬  is one of the most widely taught writers in the English language. In addition to his novels, he wrote several pieces of short fiction, essays, and memoirs. He also wrote numerous letters, which help shed light on his troubled life and career. This reference book is a guide to the entire body of his writings and to the experiences that helped generate them. A biographical chapter discusses research on Conrad's life and tells the story of his birth in a Ukrainian area of Poland under Czarist Russian rule, his sea career in France and England, his travels throughout Asia, South America, and Africa, and his maturation as a writer. The chapters that follow are written by contributors who explore each of his major works in detail. Other chapters explore his voluminous correspondence, his later novels, his short fiction, and other writings. Thus the volume provides those new to Conrad with essential biographical, bibliographical, and contextual information, while it simultaneously offers experienced readers of Conrad new critical perspectives."

¬ ¬ ¬  Clarice Swisher, ed. Readings on Heart of Darkness. Greenhaven Press, 1999.

"This anthology starts with a short biographical sketch of Conrad, followed by nineteen essays that assess his themes, short works, and later novels. Each one begins with a brief summation of its main ideas and the writer's background; the readable texts average five¬  pages in length and are broken up by subheadings. Selections represent a range of viewpoints from confirmed Conrad scholars Cedric Watts and Morton Zabel, to more contemporary experts such as Gene Phillips, who compares the film Apocalypse Now to Conrad's novella Heart of Darkness, on which it was based."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Nicolas Tredell, ed. Joseph Conrad: Heart of Darkness. Columbia University Press, [1999].

"Spanning a range of interpretations, the critical works in this collection analyze the complex narrative technique of Heart Of Darkness while exploring its evocation of myth, philosophy, and politics, its attitudes to empire, its images of Africa, and its representations of women. Examining secondary sources from the 1900's to the 1990's, this guide is a resource for the study of one of Conrad's most potent works."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Keith Carabine and Owen Knowles, with Paul Armstrong, eds. Conrad, James and Other Relations. Social Science Monographs, 1998.

"The volume, comprising seventeen contributions by students of Conrad and James, focuses on their similarities and differences: as men and writers, and on reciprocal literary and cultural influences. Essays also include commentaries on Conrad's literary relationship with such other writers as Stevenson, Flaubert, and Melville"

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Laura L. Davis, ed. Conrad's Century: The Past and Future Splendour. Social Science Monographs, 1998.

This volume presents studies of Conrad's work at the close of his first century and points toward new directions in Conrad scholarship for the next century. The essays pursue biographical, linguistic, formalist, socio-historical, and theoretical approaches and comment on a great number of fiction and non-fiction works from Conrad's extensive canon--including the centennial novel Almayer's Folly and re-visions of his writings in fiction and film. New work from  established Conrad scholars joins with that of the rising generation to  offer a full range of perspectives on the breadth of Conrad's culture and art.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Andrew Gibson and Robert Hampson, eds. Conrad and Theory. Rodopi, 1998.

"This collection of essays about Conrad and theory includes the following essays: Robert Hampson, 'Introduction'; Sandra Dodson, 'Conrad and the Politics of the Sublime'; Anthony Fothergill, 'Signs, Interpolations, Meanings: Conrad and the Politics of Utterance'; Gail Fincham, 'The Dialogism of Lord Jim'; Andrzej Gasiorek, '"To Season with a Pinch of Romance": Ethics and Politics in Lord Jim'; Andrew Gibson, 'Ethics and Unrepresentability in Heart of Darkness'; Carola M. Kaplan, 'No Refuge: The Duplicity of Domestic Safety in Conrad's Fiction'; Josiane Paccaud-Huguet, 'Reading Shadows into Lines: Conrad with Lacan'; and Andrew Michael Roberts, 'Conrad, Theory and Value.'"

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Karin Hansson, ed. Journeys, Myths and the Age of Travel: Joseph Conrad's Era. Department of Humanities, University of Karlskrona/Ronneby, 1998.

"Journeys, Myths and the Age of Travel: Joseph Conrad's Era, edited by Karin Hansson, contains papers given at an international conference organized by the Department of Humanities of the University of Karlskrona/Ronneby, Sweden in September 1997. To academic teachers and students with an interest in colonial or postcolonial studies, Joseph Conrad's writing is central, historically, generically, and symbolically. The studies show how his oeuvre constitutes a common frame of reference internationally and how it relates in various ways to a number of writers, from his contemporaries to those of today. Illustrating the scope and variety of today's criticism, the contributions deal with works from different phases of Conrad's writing career, including his shorter fiction and novels as well as non-fiction."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Ursula Lord. Solitude versus Solidarity in the Novels of Joseph Conrad: Political and Epistemological Implications of Narrative Innovation. McGill-Queens University Press, 1998.

"This book is a structural and thematic analysis of early modern British fiction whose intellectual foundation is political theory, sociology, and philosophy. Key theoreticians addressed include Charles Darwin, Max Weber, Hannah Arendt, Karl Mannheim, Karl Marx, Georg Lukacs, and Charles Taylor.¬  Lord explores the manifestations in narrative structure of epistemological relativism, textual reflexivity, and political inquiry, specifically Conrad's critique of colonialism and imperialism and his concern for the relationship between self and society. The tension between solitude and solidarity manifests itself as a soul divided against itself; an individual torn between engagement and detachment, idealism and cynicism; a dramatized narrator who himself embodies the contradictions between radical individualism and social cohesion; a society that professes the ideal of shared responsibility while isolating the individual guilty of betraying the illusion of cultural or professional solidarity. Conrad's complexity and ambiguity, his conflicting allegiances to the ideal of solidarity versus the terrible insight of unremitting solitude, his grappling with the dilemma of private versus shared meaning, are intrinsic to his political and philosophical thought.¬  The metanarrative focus of Conrad's texts intensifies rather than diminishes their philosophical and political concerns. formal experimentation and epistemological exploration inevitably entail ethical and social implications.¬  Lord relates these issues to the dialectic of individual liberty and collective responsibility that lies at the core of the modern moral and political debate."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Nic Panagopoulos. The Fiction of Joseph Conrad: The Influence of Schopenhauer and Nietzsche. Peter Lang, 1998.

"Although Schopenhauer's influence on Conrad has been acknowledged for some time, there have been no book-length studies dealing exclusively with this subject, or the much-debated question of Conrad's relationship to Nietzsche. The present study comes to fill this gap in Conrad criticism, and shows how a knowledge of these philosophers' main ideas can help illuminate the central concerns and presuppositions of Conrad's fiction. The author argues that the novelist was often grappling with the same problems as Schopenhauer and Nietzsche, and responding to some of the key issues of the Idealistic movement in the history of ideas."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Lalitha  Ramamurthi and C. T. Indra, eds. Joseph Conrad: An Anthology of  Recent Criticism. Pencraft International, 1998.

"This anthology is a collection of  critical essays on the works of Joseph Conrad and highlights their  relevance in the contemporary literary scenario. It includes  contributions of scholars from India, USA, Germany, Spain, Taiwan and  South Africa and is representative of the continued and growing interest  in Conradian studies across the world. The collection presents  re-readings of Heart of Darkness, Lord Jim, Nostromo,Typhoon, Under Western Eyes, The Shadow-Line, Karain: A Memory, and The Partner in a framework of  postcolonial, postmodern, feminist, moral and biographical approaches  and brings out the multivalency of Conrad's fiction."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Andrew Michael Roberts, ed. Joseph Conrad. Longman, 1998.

"Conrad is a key figure in modernist fiction innovative work engages with many of the crucial philosophical, moral and political concerns of the twentieth century. This collection of critical readings of his work is arranged according to the issues which each critic addresses, issues which are of crucial importance and in many cases remain controversial within contemporary literary theory and criticism. Following an opening section on the critical tradition, indicating how the study of Conrad's work has been politicised since the 1970s, there are sections on 'Narrative, Textuality and Interpretation,' Imperialism,' 'Gender and Sexuality,' Class and Ideology,' and 'Modernity.' Within each section two or three critical excerpts offer contrasting and complementary accounts of the fiction, while the head notes to each piece and the introduction place these excerpts within the wider critical debate, clarifying for the reader both the theoretical issues and the interpretation of Conrad's fiction."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Clarice Swisher,  ed. Readings on Joseph Conrad. Greenhaven Press, 1998.

"This anthology provides a resource for  students researching Conrad's life and works.¬  It contains a  biography of Conrad, primary and secondary bibliography, a chronology of  Conrad's life and career as well as of concurrent historical events.¬   The essays are taken from a wide variety of sources and include: 'The  Prose Writer's Goals and Methods'; Joseph Conrad, 'Conrad Learns His  Craft'; Walter F. Wright, 'Major Elements in Conrad's Stories'; Jerry  Allen, 'Conrad as Painter'; Adam Gillon, 'Gender Roles in Conrad's  Novels'; Cedric Watts, 'Imagination and Character in "Typhoon''; Jeremy  Hawthorn, 'Symbolism in "The Secret Sharer"';¬  J. B. Priestley,  'Heroism in "The Secret Sharer"'; Michael P. Jones, 'Conrad, the Sea,  and "The Secret Sharer"'; Morton Dauwen Zabel, 'The Significance of  Character in The Nigger of the "Narcissus"'; Maxine Greene, 'The  Significance of the Crew in The Nigger of the "Narcissus"'; James  E. Miller, Jr., 'The Ambiguous Beginning of "Heart of Darkness"';  Richard Adams, 'Marlow's Role in "Heart of Darkness"'; Daniel R.  Schwarz, 'Africans in "Heart of Darkness"'; Harold R. Collins, 'Apocalypse  Now: A Film Version of "Heart of Darkness"'; Gene D. Phillips, 'The  Complex Morality of Lord Jim'; R. A. Gekoski, 'Imperialism and  Capitalism in Nostromo'; Robert Penn Warren, 'Irony in The Secret Agent'; and E. M. W.  Tillyard, 'Symbolic Characters in Victory.'"