Turkan Araz. The Art  of “Non-Commitment”: Problematic Issues in Conrad™s Major Fiction. Turk  Kutuphaneciler Dernegi Istanbul Subesi , 1997.

     Ted Billy. A Wilderness of Words: Closure and Disclosure in Conrad's Short Fiction. Texas Tech University Press, 1997.

 
"Beginning with a detailed discussion of Conrad's ambivalence toward the function of language and the meaning of fiction, Billy explores the problematical sense of an ending in Conrad's tales and novellas. Billy tries to demonstrate that Conrad's endings, instead of reinforcing the meaning of the narrative or lending finality, actually provide a contrasting perspective that clashes with the narrative's general drift.  Hence, Billy argues, Conrad's artistic endgames celebrate indeterminacy and uncertainty--both in life and in the fictions we create to give our lives meaning.  Billy also grounds his study of Conrad's paradoxical strategy in a theoretical consideration of how the concept of closure has evolved since the Victorian novel.  Ultimately, Billy maintains, Conrad wrote with tow distinct audiences in mind: the conventional reader who relishes the sustained illusion of a conforting coda, and the more sophisticated reader who would appreciate the clash of contradictory perspectives."

     Grazyna Branny. A Conflict of Values: Alienation and Commitment in the Novels of Joseph Conrad and William Faulkner. Wydawnictwo Sponsor, 1997.

 
"This book is a comparative analysis of Conrad and Faulkner. Its aim is to resolve one of the basic critical controversies in Conrad and Faulkner, i.e. the discrepancy between the apparent negativity of their fiction and the overt affirmation of their non-fictional utterances. This study identifies the discrepancy as being directly related to the issue of alienation and commitment, which forms the core of Conrad's and Faulkner's novels. The types of alienation and commitment differentiated in this book serve to reconcile the negative and the affirmative in Conrad and Faulkner. In the end, it is the category of 'unconscious commitment' that redeems the apparent negativity of a Conrad or Faulkner novel."

     J. N. Lockman. Parallel Captures: Lord Jim and Lawrence of Arabia. Falcon Books. 1997.

 "This brief monograph considers the parallels of word choice between the capture and escape episode in Conrad's Lord Jim and the capture, torture, and escape episode, otherwise known as the 'Deraa incident' in T. E. Lawrence's Seven Pillars of Wisdom, his memoir of the Arab Revolt against the Turks during the First World War."

     Gene M. Moore, ed. Conrad on Film. Cambridge University Press, 1997.

 
"Since the first film version of Joseph Conrad's Victory appeared on the silent screen in 1919, more than eighty film and video versions of his life and works have been made throughout the world. In a series of essays by film and literary scholars, Conrad on Film surveys the history and theory of these adaptations, and examines the challenges faced by major directors in putting Conrad on film. This landmark study of Conrad films, and film adaptations in general, is well illustrated and includes a detailed filmography and film bibliography."

     Gene M. Moore, Owen Knowles, and J. H. Stape, eds. Conrad: Intertexts & Appropriations: Essays in Memory of Yves Hervouet. Rodopi, 1997.

 
"This collection of essay in honor of Yves Hervouet contains the following essays: 'A Bibliography of Works by Yves Hervouet'; Paul Kirschner, 'The Legacy of Yves Hervouet: An Introduction'; Susan Jones, 'Conrad's Debt to Marguerite Poradowska'; Amy Houston, 'Conrad and Alfred Russel Wallace'; Gene M. Moore, 'Conrad's "The Idiots" and Maupassant's "La MPre aux monstres"'; J. H. Stape, '"Gaining Conviction": Conradian Borrowing and the Patna Episode in Lord Jim'; Owen Knowles, 'Conrad, Anatole France, and the Early French Romantic Tradition: Some Influences'; J. H. Stape, '"One can learn something from Balzac": Conrad and Balzac'; Hugh Epstein, 'Bleak House and Conrad: The Presence of Dickens in Conrad's Writing'; and Hans van Marle and Gene M. Moore, 'The Sources of Suspense.'"

     Zdzislaw Najder. Conrad in Perspective: Essays on Art and Fidelity. Cambridge University Press, 1997.

 
"The fruits of thirty years of Conrad study appear in this volume of his essays. Najder's views are brought to bear on Conrad's national and cultural heritage, on his fiction itself, on his concepts of man and society, and on his European context. The volume offers new perspectives on Conrad's life and work.  Essays include "Introduction, or Confession of a Mastadon'; 'Conrad's Polish Background, or from Biography to a Study of Culture'; 'Joseph Conrad's Parents'; 'Joseph Conrad and Tadeusz Bobrowski'; 'The Sisters: A Grandiose Failure'; 'Lord Jim: A Romantic Tragedy of Honour'; 'The Mirror of the Sea'; 'A Personal Record'; 'Joseph Conrad's The Secret Agent. or the Melodrama of Reality'; 'Conrad, Russia and Dostoevsky'; 'Conrad and Rousseau: Concepts of Man and Society'; 'Conrad and the Idea of Honour'; 'Joseph Conrad: A European Writer'; 'Joseph Conrad after a Century'; 'Joseph Conrad in His Historical Perspective'; 'Fidelity and Art: Joseph Conrad's Cultural Heritage and Literary Programme.'"

    Joyce Piell Wexler. Who Paid for Modernism?: Art, Money, and the Fiction of Conrad, Joyce, and Lawrence. University of Arkansas Press, 1997.

 
"Modernist authors faced a dilemma in trying to find their place in the expanding publishing industry of the early 20th century. As the literary market grew, the possibility of monetary success increased. At the same time, the spectacle of many inferior writers becoming rich made serious artists renounce popularity in favor of a discriminating minority audience. Modernist authors were haunted by the contradictions in Flaubert's model of the author as professional; writers had a higher aim than money, yet they expected to be paid for their work. Modernists resolved this dilemma by addressing both issues: they made their fiction difficult, to demonstrate their indifference to sales, and they generated publicity to attract patrons and readers. Who Paid for Modernism? examines how three modernist authors--Conrad, Joyce, and Lawrence--coped with the contradictory models of authorship they inherited. All three wished to reach a wide audience, produce an impact on society, and make a living from their writing, but they found that these aims were incompatible with maintaining their artistic integrity. While the literal answer to the question 'Who paid for modernism?' is that patrons, literary agents, and commercial publishers paid authors, there is also a figurative answer. Authors themselves paid for modernism by giving up the wide audience their ambitions desired and their talents deserved."

     Harold Bloom, ed. Heart of Darkness and "The Secret Sharer": Bloom's Notes, Chelsea House, 1996.

 
"This volume is designed to present biographical, critical, and bibliographical information on Conrad, Heart of Darkness, and 'The Secret Sharer.' Following Bloom's introduction, there appears a detailed biography of the author, discussing the major events in his life and his important literary works. Then follows a thematic and structural analysis of the works, in which significant themes, patterns, and motifs are traced. An annotated list of characters supplies brief information on the chief characters in the works. A selection of critical extracts, derived from previously published material, then follows. The extracts consist of such things as statements by the author on his works, early reviews of the works, and later evaluations down to the present day. A bibliography of Conrad's writings (including a complete listing of books he wrote, co-wrote, edited, and translated in his lifetime, and important posthumous publications), a list of additional books and articles on him and on Heart of Darkness and 'The Secret Sharer,' and an index of themes and ideas conclude the volume"

     Keith Carabine. The Life and the Art: A Study of Conrad's "Under Western Eyes." Rodopi, 1996.

 
"Carabine, has worked on the genesis and composition of Under Western Eyes in its several versions and on its literary, ideological, social, and historical contexts. He argues for the  ways in which Conrad's 'life' and his protracted, uncertain composition of the Under Western Eyes enrich his 'art';  and the title of this book deliberately invokes Conrad's belief in the inseparability of the art and the life. This study's six chapters concentrate in different ways and with differing emphases on the complex inter-relations between the 'art' and the 'life,' on the intersections between Conrad's personal preoccupations,  fictional aesthetic, and working practices with regard to what he described  as 'without doubt . . . the most deeply meditated novel that came from under my pen.'"

     Gail Fincham and Myrtle Hooper, eds. Under Postcolonial Eyes: Joseph Conrad after Empire. University of Cape Town Press, 1996.

 
"Under Postcolonial Eyes: Joseph Conrad after Empire includes insights from Marxism, feminism, deconstruction, colonial discourse theory and narrative theory to reassess the value of Conrad's writing today.  Joseph Conrad deserves to be re-scrutinized by readers, writers and critics on both sides of what used to be the Divide of Empire. His fiction creates complex articulations between form and history, narrative and ideology. Conrad demands to be taken seriously because his self-ironising analysis of colonial ambiguities is now seen to be important to an understanding of the late 20th-century world. This collection of essay by writers from South Africa, Korea, Britain, the USA, and Canada re-examines different frameworks to pose questions about Conrad's relationship to imperialism, the construction of race, class and gender in his fiction, his impact on postcolonial writers, and his place in late 20th-century curricula. The book is divided into 4 sections: 'Positions,' 'Conrad and Empire,' 'Representation of Race, Class and Gender,' and 'Intertextuality.'  Essays include: Gail Fincham and Myrtle Hooper, 'Introduction'; Brenda Cooper, 'Postcolonialism against the "Empire of the Discipline"'; Paul Armstrong, 'Heart of Darkness and the Epistemology of Cultural Differences'; Soo Young Chon, 'Writing as an Exodus from Two Empires'; Gail Fincham, 'Empire, Patriarchy and The Secret Agent'; Robert Hampson, 'Conrad the Idea of Empire'; Michiel Heyns, '"Like People in a Book": Imaginative Appropriation in Lord Jim'; Anthony Fothergill, 'Cannibalising Traditions: Representation and Critique in Heart of Darkness'; Tim James, 'The Other "Other" in Heart of Darkness'; Padmini Mongia, 'Empire, Narrative and the Feminine in Lord Jim and Heart of Darkness'; Gail Fraser, 'Empire of the Senses: Miscegenation in An Outcast of the Islands'; Mitzi Andersen, 'Out of Africa: Darkness and Light'; Gail Fincham, 'Orality, Literature and Community: Petals of Blood and Nostromo'; Myrtle Hooper, 'Woman of Darkness and Mother Africa'; and Andrea White, 'Conrad's Legacy in Postcolonial Literature.'"

     Geoffrey Galt Harpham. One of Us: The Mastery of Joseph Conrad. University of Chicago Press, 1996.

 
"Conrad has traditionally been seen as a master--a master mariner, master storyteller, master of the secrets of  the human heart, master of fictional technique. Recently, however, these  compliments have given way to charges that Conrad is complicit in the various  masteries associated with racism, imperialism, and the patriarchy. In this book,  Harpham inquires not only into Conrad's work and reputation, but also  into the idea of mastery as such."

     Elaine Jordan, ed. Joseph Conrad. St. Martin's Press, 1996.

 
"This collection comprises eleven essays on key Conrad texts--'Heart of Darkness,' Nostromo, and The Secret Agent--meant to help the reader to assess the different critical and theoretical approaches which have emerged over the past thirty years. These approaches include postcolonial discourse, feminism, developments in Marxist critical theory as well as narrative theory and the influence of psychoanalysis. Essays include Ian Watt, 'Ideological Perspectives: Kurtz and the Fate of Victorian Progress'; Nina Pelikan Straus, 'The Exclusion of the Intended from the Secret Sharing'; Peter Brooks, 'An Unreadable Report: Conrad's Heart of Darkness'; Christopher L. Miller, 'The Discoursing Heart: Conrad's Heart of Darkness'; Edward W. Said, 'The Novel as Beginning Intention: Nostromo'; Fredric Jameson, 'Romance and Reification: Plot Construction and Ideological Closure in Nostromo'; Daphan Erdinast-Vulcan, 'Nostromo and the Failure of Myth'; Jim Reilly, 'A Play of Signs: Nostromo'; Terry Eagleton, 'Form, Ideology and The Secret Agent'; Aaron Fogel, 'The Fragmentation of Sympathy in The Secret Agent'; and Rebecca Stott, 'The Woman in Black: Unravelling Race and Gender in The Secret Agent.'"

     Frederick R. Karl and Laurence Davies, eds. The Collected Letters of Joseph Conrad, 1912-1916. Vol. 5. Cambridge University Press, 1996.

"This is the fifth of eight projected volumes comprising all the surviving letters of Joseph Conrad. War broke out in 1914, halfway through the period of this volume. The letters from the last days of peace show Conrad finished Chance and writing Victory. Thanks in part to Doubleday's and Knopf's energetic publicity campaign in the United States and a new appeal to women readers, Chance brought unaccustomed commercial success as well as renewed critical esteem. yet Conrad feared creative exhaustion; both those who disparage and those who admire Victory will find evidence here for their case. For the Conrads, the war began during an ill-timed holiday in Poland. Letters tell the story of their flight from Cracow, and their chancy return to Britain. As Borys Conrad approached military age, joined up, and was sent to the Western Front, the family felt increasing anxiety. Conrad describes the sight and sound of zeppelins overhead, his new acquaintance, the powerful but erratic Lord Northcliffe, and his expeditions with the Royal Navy Reserve--his first extended absences from Jessie Conrad in many years. From the war years came the essay 'Poland Revisited' and The Shadow-Line; the latter, a story in which Conrad's own memories of his first command converge with the experience of Borys and other young soldiers. Other topics covered here include Suffragette campaigns, the Easter Rising in Dublin, the latest in French literature, the antics of the young John Conrad, and the loss of the Titanic and the Empress of Ireland."

     Pamela King. 'Like painting, like music . . .': Joseph Conrad and the Modernist Sensibility. Pamela King, 1996.

"King's book reconsiders Conrad's imagination in terms of its bewildering biographical points of origin, and its haunting clusters of predominantly painterly and sculptural imagery. To what sort of cultural milieu did Conrad belong? What sort of artists might have moved within, towards, or across, Conrad's social circle? In what ways are Conrad's images--particularly his painterly and sculptural images--informed by empathy towards an awareness of the emergent impulses of early modernist art? To what extent, in other words, is Conrad's modernist prose--or prose poetry--distinctively artistic in quality? These are questions and speculations, to which the critic can at best respond relatively tentatively after patiently considering available materials and probable correspondences. Emphasising the complexity of both Conrad's wide-ranging aesthetic acquaintances and Conrad's wide-ranging 'aesthetic' thematics, King suggests how Conrad's fiction resists monodimensional exegesis, generating fascinating constellations of symbolic 'haze' or 'glow,' rather than offering unambiguous statements of thematic 'kernel.' Looking beyond Conrad's recourse to the common everyday words' making up the 'solid pavement' of realist fiction and realist criticism, King's discussion of his evocative thematics considers the ways in which their frequently sculptural imagery conveys the quintessentially modernist sense of life as a process in which all that is 'solid' melts into air; at best, surviving, 'apart, indistinct and silent, in the pose of a meditating Buddha'; at worst, subsiding into 'something in a muddy hole.' King seeks to guide the reader through both the inner circles of this archetypal early modernist novelist's life. Like Kurtz, Conrad is a writer with 'something to say,' and like Marlow, King reminds the reader how complex and how absorbing such 'somethings' can be."

     Alex S. Kurczaba, ed. Conrad and Poland. East European Monographs, 1996.

 
"This collection of essays address such issues as Conrad's use of the Polish literary canon, his politics, the role of the Polish courtly tradition in his fiction, his representation of women, the impact of Polish on English style, and the influence of his works on 20th-century Polish artists such as Andrzej Wajda and Czeslaw Milosz."

     J. H. Stape, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Joseph Conrad. Cambridge University Press, 1996.

 
"In this collection, a number of Conrad scholars provide an account of Conrad's life and detailed readings of his major works. They discuss his narrative techniques, complex relationship with cultural developments of his time, influence on later writers and artists, and recent developments in Conrad criticism.  This book offers a wide-ranging introduction to the fiction of Conrad.  Through a series of essays aimed at both students and the general reader, this collection is meant to stimulate an informed appreciation of Conrad's work based on an understanding of his cultural and historical situations and fictional techniques.  A chronology and overview of Conrad's life precede chapters that explore significant issues in his major writings, and deal in depth with individual works.  These are followed by discussions of the special nature of Conrad's narrative techniques, his complex relationships with late-Victorian imperialism and with literary Modernism, and his influence on other writers and artists.  Each essay provides guidance to further reading, and a concluding chapter surveys the body of Conrad criticism."

     J. H. Stape and Owen Knowles, eds. A Portrait in Letters: Correspondence to and about Joseph Conrad. Rodopi, 1996.

 
"This book offers an annotated selection of letters to Conrad preserved in widely scattered archives. Augmented by letters about his work and personality, the volume also contains a calendar of all known surviving correspondence addressed to him. A supplement to the Cambridge Edition of The Collected Letters of Joseph Conrad, A Portrait in Letters is meant to present Conrad in the round, offering glimpses not only of the working writer but of the husband, parent, and friend. The letters offer new information about Conrad's literary circle and fill out numerous details about his career. Brief, authoritative biographies of the correspondents are included, and an introduction, description of editorial principles, and full index to the volume provide the scholarly contextualization and tools necessary for easy access to its contents."

     Mikolaj Henry Thierry. Joseph Conrad-Korzeniowski: His Indonesia, His Ships. Oficyna Wydawnicza Volumen, 1996.

     Russell West. Conrad and Gide: Translation, Transference and Intertexuality. Rodopi, 1996.

 
"This study examines the relations between the work of Conrad and the French Nobel Prize winner Andre Gide. Gide's translation of Conrad's Typhoon is read as a work belonging paradoxically to the oeuvres of both writers, where their respective preoccupations meet with illuminating results. Focusing also on other major works by Conrad and Gide, the study suggests that the intertextual and personal interaction between these two masters of 20th-century fiction was governed by processes of identification and projection, conflict between master and disciple and a consequent resistant reading of texts, and confrontation with linguistic and cultural heterogeneity. Issues of translation theory, psychoanalysis and intertextuality are brought together to offer a glimpse of a possible dialogue between literature and ethics."

     Christopher GoGwilt. The Invention of the West: Joseph Conrad and the Double-Mapping of Europe and Empire. Stanford University Press, 1995.

 
"By placing Conrad's fiction at the center of an examination of the term 'the West,' this study re-conceives the major contours of Conrad's work to show how the contemporary commonplace idea of the West emerged around the turn of the century from the combined and related phenomena of European imperial expansion and a crisis of democratic politics. The author argues that twentieth-century ideas of the West can be traced to the convergence of two distinct discursive contexts: the 'new imperialism' of the 1890's that gave wider currency to oppositions between East and West, and the influence of 19th-century Russian debates on Western European ideas of Europe. The work of Conrad is shown to be uniquely suited to studying the relation between these two cultural and political contexts, since they provided Conrad with his two great themes--colonialism and revolution."

     John W. Griffith. Joseph Conrad and the Anthropological Dilemma: 'Bewildered Traveller.' Clarendon Press, 1995.

 
"This is a detailed analysis of Conrad's early works in relation to 19th-century anthropology, Victorian travel writing, and contemporary anthropological theory. Conrad's early fiction originated as a response to his travels in so-called primitive cultures: Malaysia, Borneo, and the Congo. As a sensitive observer of other peoples and a notable emigre, he was profoundly aware of the psychological impact of travel, and much of his early fiction portrays both literal and figurative voyages of Europeans into other cultures. By situating Conrad's work in relation to other writings on 'primitive' peoples, Griffith attempts to show how his fiction draws on prominent anthropological and biological theories regarding the degenerative potential of contacts between European and other cultures. At the same time, however, Conrad's work reflected an anthropological dilemma: he constantly posed the question of how to bridge conceptual and cultural gaps between various peoples. As Griffith tries to demonstrate, this was a dilemma which coincided with a larger Victorian debate regarding the progression or retrogression of European civilization."

     Mahmoud Issa. Involvement and Detachment in Joseph's Conrad Fiction. Regnbue Tryk Borforlaget, 1995.

     Jakob Lothe. Conrad in Scandinavia. Social Science Monographs, 1995.

 
"This book presents a representative selection of Scandinavian Conrad criticism.  The contributors are from Sweden and Norway.  The first essay was originally published in 1923, the latest ones were written in 1994. Many of the contributions were originally published in one of the Scandinavian languages, and they have been translated, and in several cases revised and improved, exclusively for this volume.  Featuring essays on Conrad from different stages of Conrad criticism, this book also aims at presenting studies of works which Conrad published at different stages of his writing career. Essays include: Joseph Conrad: An Appreciation, Master of the Sea, In Joseph Conrad's Waters, Narrative and Ideology: Race and Class in The Nigger of the 'Narcissus,' Heart of Darkness: White Lies, The Woman-in-Effect and the Heart of Darkness, Modernity and Melancholy: Narration, Discourse and Identity in Heart of Darkness, An Uneasy Relationship: Heart of Darkness and Apocalypse Now,Lord Jim: The Prison-House of Consciousness, Lord Jim and the Perils of Interpretation, Involvement and Detachment in Nostromo, The Subversions of the 'Debauch of the Imagination': Ethics and Aesthetics in Under Western Eyes, 'The Tale': Epistemological Uncertainty Dramatized through Three Concentric Tales."

     Gene D. Phillips. Conrad and Cinema: The Art of Adaptation. Peter Lang, 1995.

 
"The purpose of this book is to show how the wedding of fiction to film works out concretely in a book that focuses on the screen versions of the work of a single novelist, Joseph Conrad. Conrad is not only one of the greatest writers of this century, but has the distinction of having all of his major works committed to film, including Lord Jim and Heart of Darkness (as Apocalypse Now). Here is an in-depth study of the films of Conrad's fiction, solidly based on both literary and cinematic theory. Phillips conducted interviews with several of the notable directors who made Conrad films, including Sir Alfred Hitchcock and Francis Coppola."

     [George Ramsey, comp.] Richard Curle: The Pre-Eminent Conradian. Stone Trough Books, 1995.

     Martin Seymour-Smith. Joseph Conrad. Greenwich Exchange, 1995.

 
"In this new critical introduction to Conrad, Seymour-Smith tries to lay proper emphasis upon how the creative process worked itself out in the ever-reluctant Pole, and in particular discusses the powerful and crucial influence of Conrad's closest friend--the only man whom he would allow to write parts of his work--Ford Madox Ford. In addition to discussing the work of Conrad, Seymour-Smith provides a characteristically ironic and scathing commentary on many of the things that Conrad himself satirized: social arrangements, contemporary criticism. He tries to show exactly how Conrad always seems contemporary, always to be writing about now."

     Sharan Pal Singh. Novels of Melville and Conrad: Acts of Faith, a Critical Comparison. New Deep & Deep, 1995.

"This book attempts to show the author's capacity to distinguish between the ephemeral and the essential in the works of two great authors and a broad acquaintance with the main currents of English and American fiction. The hypothesis Singh puts forth attempts to skirt the shoals of proliferating critical commentary that can bog down the less wary. He takes into account the current literature on his subject and the capacity to use it in building up his argument, looking to present a fresh critical interpretation of his subject. In this comparative study of two major novelists, Singh attempts to analyse selected novels, in order to reassess artistry in relation to moral vision, while incorporating the insights of Sartre and Fanon along the way."

     V. K. Tewari. Joseph Conrad in Bakhtinian Dialogics. People's Publishing House, 1995.

"The whole perspective of Conradian criticism gets another look when this Indian critic roots his cultural critiques in the application of the urgent need for understanding the otherness of other thought in the study of novelness and novelisation as historical and political paradigms; devastates the colonial discourse of subverting the native histories and cultures; interrogates the forces of revolutionism and anarchism and repressive state apparatuses as evidenced by the multilevelled textual analyses of eight of Conrad's novels. Bakhtinian dialogics is the clear evaluative theory of analysis which is qualitatively distinct from the monological approaches of social fragmentation and atomization circumventing dialogue, heteroglossia, openendedness and polyphony. The dialogisation of the socio-political-ideological factors, of the social-ideologemes is indeed multivalenced and multilevelled providing immense scope for vast dimensions. Here is, perhaps, one of the first major literary attempts to study the oeuvre of Conrad from Bakhtinian angle, plus that of Fredric Jameson, Louis Althusser, Terry Eagleton and quite a few more theoreticians. This work argues for another approach in understanding the discourse in life through discourse art, which is intended to initiate many a student of literature towards unfolding new vector of critical appreciation. It is hoped that researchers and readers of Bakhtin and Conrad are especially going to benefit intellectually by this dialogical analysis."

     Robert Wilson. Joseph Conrad: Sources and Traditions. Weir Press. 1995.

"This book is a supplement to Wilson's earlier book Conrad's Mythology (1987) in which he argues that Conrad developed ideas drawn from comparative religion and science to create his fiction and expound his atheistic and humanistic philosophy. Conrad's early works were a development of his interest in comparative religion, while he later works were based mainly on ideas drawn from astronomy. Wilson discusses various aspects of Conrad's fiction: the Christian Conrad, the Classical Conrad, the domestic Conrad, the anthropologist Conrad, and the artist Conrad."

     John Batchelor. The Life of Joseph Conrad: A Critical Biography. Blackwell, 1994.

"Batchelor uses archive material, as well as published sources, in an attempt to reveal the especially close relationship, at every stage of Conrad's writing career, between the life and the work. Conrad was both depressive and delinquent. He manipulated friends, such as Ford Madox Ford, Edward Garnett, and John Galsworthy, into relationships that went at least some way to meeting his urgent psychological needs. He suffered from virulent writer's block, and would accept substantial advances from publishers and his agent, J. B. Pinker, for works which he then found himself unable or unwilling to write. Many of his best-known works, Heart of Darkness,Lord Jim, and Nostromo, for example, can be seen as forms of escape from uncongenial duties. Batchelor's study, which gives account of the complex and fugitive Polish background, reveals Conrad, the great writer, as being also one of the most tormented and self-defeating of our literary figures."

     Adam Gillon. Joseph Conrad: Comparative Essays. Ed. Raymond Brebach. Texas Tech University Press, 1994.

"The collection of essays demonstrates Gillon's comparative approach to Conrad. Gillon examines the affinities between Conrad's descriptive art and painting and film. Gillon traces the connections between Conrad and such writers as James and Nabokov and compares Conradian characters Prince Roman and Peter Ivanovitch. Gillon's background in Polish is an important influence on the essays in this collection."

     Mary Morzinski. The Linguistic Influence of Polish on Joseph Conrad's Style. East European Monographs, 1994.

 
"This linguistic analysis of Conrad's style focuses on the influence of his native Polish. The difference between the periphrastic tense and modal system of English verb forms and Polish morphological representation of aspect as a primary verbal category can cause difficulties when a native speaker of Polish shifts to English. A detailed analysis of Conrad's style indicates that some of his more noticeable non-native-sounding syntactic choices reflect the semantics inherent in the morphology of Polish aspect. Readers have often noted Conrad's unusual choice and placement of adverbs, particularly those indicating frequency and duration. Morzinski attempts to show that Conrad was attempting to express the features of Polish aspect by pressing the equivalent adverbial lexical items into his sentences, causing an otherwise native-like fluency to take on the non-native characteristic recognized as foreign flavor in his style."

     Cedric Watts. Joseph Conrad. Northcote House, 1994.

"Locating Conrad's work in the context of the writer's life and cultural milieu, Watts's study offers an introduction to the range and main phases of Conrad's literary development. Drawing out distinctive thematic preoccupations and technical devices in Conrad's writing, Watts explores and demonstrates his importance as a moral, social, and political commentator. Watts's critical discussions address recent controversial developments in the evaluation of this magisterial, vivid, complex, and problematic author."

     Keith Carabine, Owen Knowles, Wieslaw Krajka, eds. Contexts for Conrad. East European Monographs, 1993.

 
"This collection consists of 15 essays considering the impact of Conrad in sections on Conrad and things Polish, gender, and cultural contexts. Among the topics are reconstructing Conrad's conceptions of 'east' and 'west,' miscegenation in An Outcast of the Islands, and his relation to anarchist theories of language."

     Martin Ray. Joseph Conrad. Edward Arnold, 1993.

 
"This wide-ranging study provides detailed analysis of 5 of Conrad's principal works (Heart of Darkness, Lord Jim, Nostromo, The Secret Agent and Under Western Eyes). It examines the extent  to which the impact of Conrad's early life and his cultural inheritance is  reflected in the themes of his books. Conrad's preoccupation with the crisis of  language and the breakdown of community and individual identity is addressed and  special attention is given to his distinctive narrative strategies, ranging from black comedy to nihilistic despair. Martin Ray's study attempts to bring  another perspective to the work of one of the greatest Modernist  writers."

     Andrew Michael Roberts, ed. Conrad and Gender. Rodopi, 1993.

"This collection of essays considers Conrad and his works in relationship to issues of gender.  Essays include Andrew Michael Roberts, 'Introduction'; Padmini Mongia, '"Ghosts of the Gothic": Spectral Women and Colonized Spaces in Lord Jim'; Scott McCracken, '"A Hard and Absolute Condition of Existence": Reading Masculinity in Lord Jim'; Rebecca Stott, 'The Woman in Black: Race and Gender in The Secret Agent'; Susan Jones, 'Representing Women: Conrad, Marguerite Poradowska, and Chance'; Laurence Davies, 'Conrad, Chance, and Women Readers'; Andrew Michael Roberts, 'Secret Agents and Secret Objects: Action, Passivity, and Gender in Chance' Robert Hampson, 'Chance and the Secret Life: Conrad, Thackery, Stevenson'; Monika Elbert, 'Possession and Self-Possession: The "Dialectic of Desire" in 'Twixt Land and Sea.'"

     Jim Reilly. Shadowtime: History and Representation in Hardy, Conrad and George Eliot. Routledge, 1993.

 
"Taking up Adorno's assertion that the  crisis of 20th-century art is its inability to represent historical events, Reilly seeks the  19th-century roots of this problem and its articulation within the works of Hardy, Conrad and George Eliot. Drawing on the theories of Benjamin, Foucault, Hegel, Lukacs and Nietzsche, he constructs an argument across the entire period of historicism's triumph and decline.  Shadowtime considers 19th-century literature in the light of current radical historiography. It poses critical questions about literature's relation to all the cherished principles of historicism: origination, antiquity, historical reconstruction, gender, possession and the very concept of the Real. This book is a study of realism, modernism and the complex relations of history and aesthetics in the modern period."

    R. N. Sakar. A Critical Study of Joseph Conrad: The Personality behind Principle. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 1993.

"This book studies Conrad's mostly unconscious psychological promptings behind his adopted method of treatment of themes, at one stage one kind at another stage another different kind, with the corresponding changes in his stylistic pattern. All these variations are argued to conform to a well-related system in the author's discernments."

     Cedric Watts. A Preface to Conrad. 2nd ed. Longman, 1993.

 
"Conrad, one of the greatest prose stylists in English literature, was a master at creating character and atmosphere. Watts provides an introduction to the life and works of Conrad. He begins with a lucid analysis of Conrad's background, setting him firmly in the context of his times. The book: outlines his life and cultural background and their effect on his work; examines his major works including Heart of Darkness, Lord Jim, Almayer's Folly and Nostromo; discusses Conrad's heroes and heroines; lists important people in Conrad's life and their effect on him. Watts' introduction to the life and works of Conrad is meant to be of great interest to general readers and students alike."

     Andrea White. Joseph Conrad and the Adventure Tradition: Constructing and Deconstructing the Imperial Subject. Cambridge University Press, 1993.

 
"Nineteenth-century adventure fiction relating to the British empire served to promote, celebrate, and justify the imperial project, asserting the essential and privileging difference between 'us' and 'them,' colonizer and colonized. White's study opens with an examination of popular exploration literature in relation to later adventure stories, showing how a shared view of the white man in the tropics authorized the European intrusion into other lands.  She then sets the fiction of Joseph Conrad in this context, arguing that Conrad in fact demythologized and disrupted the imperial subject constructed in earlier writing, by simultaneously--with the modernist's double vision--admiring the human capacity to dream but applauding the desire to condemn many of its consequences. She argues that the very complexity of Conrad's work provided an alternative, more critical means of evaluating the experience of empire."

     Harold Bloom, ed. Modern Literary Characters: Marlow. Chelsea House, 1992.

"This collection is introduced by Harold Bloom and contains brief critical extracts about Marlow by Henry James, John Cowper Powys, Hugh Walpole, Joseph Conrad, Frances Wentworth Cutler, Ford Madox Hueffer, Virginia Woolf, Gerald Bullett, R. L. Megroz, Joseph Warren Beach, Leonard F. Dean, Albert J. Guerard, Harold Kaplan, J. W. Johnson, Norman Sherry, William W. Bonney, Stephen Zelnick, Gary Geddes, William M. Hagen, Daniel R. Schwarz, Jerome Meckier, Aaron Fogel, and Donald M. Kartiganer.  This collection also contains the following critical essays: Alan Warren Friedman, 'Conrad's Picaresque Narrator'; Jacques Berthoud, Heart of Darkness'; Ian Watt, 'Marlow and Henry James'; Garrett Stewart, 'Lying as Dying in Heart of Darkness'; Benita Parry, 'Lord Jim'; Mark Conroy, 'Paragon and Enigma: The Hero in Lord Jim'; Kenneth Simons, 'The Ludic Imagination: "Youth"'; Fred Madden, 'Marlow and the Double Horror in Heart of Darkness'; Anthony Winner, 'Lord Jim: Irony and Dream.'"

     Keith Carabine, ed.Joseph Conrad: Critical Assessments. 4 vols. Helm Information, 1992.

 
"In September 1903, Conrad wrote to H. G. Wells that a writer 'should go forth . . . casting a wide and generous net where there would be room for everybody, where indeed every sort of fish would be welcome, appreciated and made use of.' This collection attempts to cast just such a net over Conrad's extraordinary life as well over the sheer scale and variety of both his work and the responses to it. In contrast to other great English writers, Conrad experienced several 'lives': he spent his youth in Poland and Russia, his adolescence in France, his adult life as a mariner in the British Merchant Service; then, from the age of 37, following the publication in 1895 of Almayer's Folly, he spent the rest of his life in England as a writer. Between June 1896 when he began The Nigger of the 'Narcissus' through the completion of the holograph of Under Western Eyes in January 1910, Conrad experienced a burst of sustained creative energy (equaled only to Dickens in English literature) during which he also produced such masterpieces as Heart of Darkness, Typhoon, 'Amy Foster,' Lord Jim, Nostromo, and The Secret Agent. Included in this collection are responses to, and estimations of, Conrad's life and works; memories and impressions of the man and artist; reviews of all his output; articles on all his novels, novellas and short stories, on his autobiographies, plays, essays, sketches and letters; on his relationship to his Polish and French heritages and to Russian and American writers; on his relationship to his contemporaries and to Nineteenth Century European thought: and lastly, a section of 53 essays covering most aspects of his work."

     Robert Hampson. Joseph Conrad: Betrayal and Identity. Macmillan Press, 1992.

 
"Through attention to incidents of betrayal and self-betrayal in Conrad's fiction, Hampson traces the development of Conrad's conception of identity through the three phases of his career--the self in isolation, the self in society, and the sexualized self--showing how the early fiction negotiates the opposed dangers of the self-ideal and the surrender to passion; how the middle fiction tests the ideal code psychologically and ideologically; and how the late fiction probes sexuality and morbid psychology."

     Thomas J. Harrison. Essayism: Conrad, Musil, & Pirandello. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.

"In this book Harrison attempts to perform two tasks, one practical, the other ideal: a critical analysis of the literary-philosophical work of three writers of the 20th century and the construction of a tentative groundwork for a theory of living. Essayism ultimately seeks to describe more than these writers' aesthetic and ontological positions--namely, a conscious bearing toward experience which those ontologies and aesthetics imply This bearing is concerned above all with the logic of action, with reasons for living in one way or another, with the possibility of enhancing those reasons. Moving from ontology to ethics by way of aesthetics, the six main chapters of this book are designed to be readable independently as well as in sequence. The relations between Conrad, Musil, and Pirandello emerge by analogy rather than direct comparison."

     Bruce Henricksen. Nomadic Voices: Conrad and the Subject of Narrative. University of Illinois Press, 1992.

 
"By applying recent theories of narrative and ideology, particularly those of Mikhail Bakhtin and Jean-Francois Lyotard, to the novels of Joseph Conrad's 'major phase,' Henricksen radically revises current assessments of Conrad's career. Anchoring his argument thematically in the relationship of the self and the community, Henricksen argues for a developmental trajectory in which the conservative, monologic discourse of The Nigger of the 'Narcissus' yields to the polyphonic narration of Under Western Eyes, in a move away from the grand narratives of Western imperialism and toward Conrad's fullest celebration of the open potential of human freedom. In the process, he reevaluates Conrad in relation to our present debate concerning self-hood and social justice in a postcolonial world."

     Owen Knowles. An Annotated Critical Bibliography of Joseph Conrad. St. Martin's Press, 1992.

 
"This newly researched bibliography is designed to provide a selective survey of Conrad scholarship and criticism in English from 1914 (when the first full-length study of Conrad's fiction was published) to 1990. It offers access to five main areas of material; primary texts and preliminary materials, such as reference books and bibliographies; introductory studies; full-length criticisms, symposia and general essays; studies of Conrad's individual works; and criticism devoted to more specialized aspects, ranging from entries on Conrad's ethical and technical preoccupations to those on his language, attitudes to the sea, women, imperialism and religion. All items in this bibliography are arranged chronologically in order to provide a basic outline of the historical development, landmarks and schools of Conrad criticism. Describes and evaluates nearly 600 studies, 1914-1990, of Joseph Conrad. The listing is chronological within sections on modern editions, reference, letters, biography, full- length and general studies, individual works, and aspects such as aesthetics, textual studies, and Conrad's Polish heritage. "

     Wieslaw Krajka. Isolation and Ethos: A Study of Joseph Conrad. East European Monographs, 1992.

"This book outlines a distinct synthesis of Conrad's output, formulated in terms of what Krajka argues are its two most important and characteristic aspects: isolation and ethos, whose relationship indicates a definite manifestation of the Conradian world view. All the analytical comments are subordinated to the discussion of these problems. Krajka based his research on a thorough and intensive examination of all of Conrad's writings and tried to avoid superficialities so as to objectify interpretive judgements as much as possible. The methodological foundation of this study is the concept of the literary work of art as a structure, i.e., a set of semantically significant and dynamically interconnected elements, subordinated to organizing principles (main lines of meanings), its explication depending upon higher-level structures (literary and extraliterary contexts). The interpretation of a text, which reveals its semantic and artistic uniqueness, richness, and the diversity of meanings. It was combined with synthesis, which gives an overall picture of Conrad's oeuvrewhile placing particular works in this picture and explaining their position in the history of literature and culture. Adoption of a synthetic perspective has resulted in the treatment of all Conrad's creations as one text of a higher order with clearly manifested parallels among them, with recurring themes and motifs that reveal the considerable uniformity of the Conradian visions of man and the world. Krajka suggests that this delineation of the diverse realizations of the crucial concepts of isolation and ethos and the abundance and productiveness of structural and semantic configurations generated by them testifies to the greatness of Conrad's masterpieces."

     Gene M. Moore, ed. Conrad's Cities: Essays for Hans van Marle. Rodopi, 1992.

 
"Conrad travelled widely, and many of the cities he visited appear as settings or references in his novels and stories. From Singapore to Genoa, from Vologda to Sulaco, the essays in this collection are meant to evoke a sense of 'Conrad's Cities' as he saw them, and discuss the implications of their use in his work as settings, as symbols or as 'topodialogic' correlatives. Some three dozen photographs, maps and drawings picture the places from which Conrad fashioned his fictions. Prefaced with a dedication by the novelist's grandson Philip Conrad, the seventeen essays in this volume include contributions by Jacques Berthoud, Eloise Knapp Hay, Paul Kirschner, Juliet McLauchlan, Ugo Mursia, Zdzislaw Najder, Ian Watt, Cedric Watts, and other well-known Conrad scholars and biographers."

     Ross C. Murfin. Lord Jim: After the Truth. Twayne Publishers, 1992.

"A tale of dramatic experiences in far away places and of the ongoing fight between the primitive and the civilized, Lord Jim is one of Joseph Conrad's most highly regarded works. His forceful style and perceptive treatment of very modern problems have earned him the respect and admiration of both the general reader and writers such as William Faulkner and Graham Greene. Lord Jim: After the Truth is only the second critical study devoted entirely to Conrad's most far-flung and disparate novel. It includes an introduction to biographical and historical background, a fast-paced survey of major critical response, chapters on the novel's significance, and a clearly organized and carefully developed reading of Lord Jim. Murfin argues that because Conrad's novel creates conditions that militate against one central viewpoint, it cannot be declared optimistic or nihilistic, any more than Jim can be called a hero or a failure. Lord Jim: After the Truth attempts to hold the reader's interest in these issues by aiming a multifaceted interpretation towards reader response. This study includes a discussion of the work's influence, historical context, and critical reception in addition to a chronology, an annotated bibliography, and an index."

     Brian Spittles. Joseph Conrad: Text and Context. St. Martin's Press, 1992.

 
"This book considers Conrad as a product of his time and circumstances. Spittles draws on letters, diaries, newspaper reports, magazine articles, and the popular fiction of the day, as well as Conrad's own work, to illuminate the political, social, intellectual and personal forces operating on him during the period 1870-1920.  Spittles weaves explanations of the relevant current events and ideas into a discussion of Conrad's stories and novels.  This study attempts to put Conrad into a new perspective, providing a discussion for students, teachers, and general readers."

     Malgorzata Trebisz.The Novella in England at the Turn of the XIX and XX Centuries: H. James, J. Conrad, D. H. Lawrence. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wroclawskiego, 1992.

"The time span of the publication of the novellas Trebisz selects embraces about forty years roughly from 1890 to 1930. Trebisz argues that the novella had a different significance for each writer James found its length most congenial for his artistic and editorial purposes; Conrad wrote his greatest masterpieces at the novella-length continuing the process started by James of forming the principles of the modern novel which had been becoming increasingly shorter; and D. H. Lawrence often re-worked his earlier short stories endowing them with the qualities of full-length novels."

     Richard Adams. Joseph Conrad: Heart of Darkness. Penguin, 1991.

"This chapter-by-chapter reading of Conrad's Heart of Darkness contains within it vivid analysis of the novella's characterization and themes, its impressionist style and its wonderfully intricate structural patternings. The enormous difference between initial idea and eventual understanding is a central concern in Heart of Darkness, a theme reflected in the subtle allusive way the whole story of Marlow's journey and his spiritual pilgrimage unfolds. Adams is a guide, enabling readers to arrive at their own interpretation of the novel."

     Richard Ambrosini. Conrad's Fiction as Critical Discourse. Cambridge University Press, 1991.

"Conrad's comments about the interpretation of his works have until now been dismissed as theoretically unsophisticated, while the critical notions of James, Woolf, and Joyce have come to shape our understanding of the modern novel. Ambrosini's study of Conrad's fiction as critical discourse makes an original claim for the importance of his theoretical ideas as they are formed and tested in the novels themselves. Setting Conrad's comments in this context of transformations in his narrative forms, Ambrosini defines Conrad's view of fiction and the artistic ideal underlying his commitment as a writer in a new and challenging way. Conrad's innovative techniques as a novelist are shown in the continuity of his theoretical enterprise, from the early search for an artistic prose and a personal novel form, to the later dislocations of perspective achieved by manipulation of conventions drawn from popular fiction. This reassessment of Conrad's critical thought offers a new perspective on the transition from the Victorian novel to contemporary fiction."

     Carl D. Bennett. Joseph Conrad. Continuum, 1991.

"This introduction to Conrad's life and work considers the range of his writings primarily from moral and ethical viewpoints. Following a concise biography, which shows a man whose temperament was shaped by the early death of his parents and the gloomy atmosphere of his native czarist-dominated Poland, as well as early disappointments with sea life and his writing career, Bennett goes on to discuss Conrad's novels and stories from the viewpoints of several psycho-moral character types: the falsely aware, the 'unconscious' but fortunate and able, and--most important--the tragically aware who come to realize their moral inadequacy and their inability to control their intentions or the consequences of their actions. Throughout, Bennett also places emphasis on other aspects of Conrad's art--his use of character, symbol, and point of view, which together fashioned to create some of the most haunting literary works of all time. This books seeks to reveal a man who struggled throughout his lifetime with the elusive ethical dimensions of human existence."

      Ashok Bhagawati. Politics and the Modern Novelist: Conrad's Conservatism. B. R. Publishing, 1991.

"Bhagawati argues that politics has been a central concern of a modern novelist such as Conrad. The peculiar position of his country, which was under Czarist rule, inevitably led Conrad to think in political terms. Instead of taking to political activism, however, Conrad tried to find the meaning of his life away from Poland in the distant seas. Conrad worked in the British Merchant Service, and he saw the process of the imperialism spread to the East and the folly as well as the glory in such an endeavor. His own personal predilections as a complex human being got woven into the history of those times in far off Eastern lands. The sea sustained Conrad's tenuous hold on life, which could not have been possible if the sea were not such a buoyant life line of trade and imperialist expansion. Though Conrad did respond to the problems that imperialism raised through an authentic response and a complex delineation of the issues, his commitments are more nationalist than imperialistic. His commitment to nationalism in a deeper sense makes Conrad critical of some aspects of imperialism. Bhagawati considers Conrad's response to the revolutionary ideas of the 18th and 19th centuries at length. Bhagawati argues that believing in nationalism, Conrad rejected revolution as an unnatural change, which only corrupts the human spirit and sees Conrad's complex moral position to be an intrinsic part of his psyche which believes in plurality not uniformity. Bhagawati believes that Conrad was a democrat while detesting its mass frenzy and hysteria and that Conrad's politics is a complex mixture of a modern temperament which could not accept anything at face value. Bhagawati concludes with a discussion of the relationship between the form and contents of Conrad's novels."

     Otto Bohlmann. Conrad's Existentialism. St. Martin's Press, 1991.

"Bohlmann argues that the major philosophical aspects of Conrad's novels display a powerful existential strain, foreshadowing many central concerns of twentieth-century modernism. Bohlmann focuses on the extent to which Conrad's fiction resonates with ideas, attitudes and even phrases reminiscent of Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Jaspers, Marcel, Heidegger, Sartre and Camus. Setting out existential positions and pointing to their presence in Conrad, Bohlmann offers another understanding of Conrad without subjecting him to narrow classification. Bohlmann argues that Conrad shared the existential view that we are all thrown by chance into an absurd universe, abandoned to utter freedom of choice and action. He suggests that Conrad insists, like Camus, that every individual must rebel against the condition of mere functionalism induced by the obstacles that surround him or her, so as to create his or her own authentic selfhood--a Satrean 'essence,' or 'for-itself.' Bohlmann also argues that Conrad upholds Kierkegaard's demand that we forge a wider 'civic self' by relating to other people with full existential commitment, fidelity, communication, and love. Focusing on Heart of Darkness, Lord Jim, Under Western Eyes, The Secret Agent, and Victory, Bohlmann sees Conrad as displaying an existential awareness of life's tragic quality generated by the tension between limited, subjective man and his irrational world of Nietzschean multiplicity. He points also to Conrad's existential emphasis on the supremacy of emotions over abstract rationality, with particular stress on feelings such as alienation, despair, anxiety and nausea--which can be overcome through Heideggerian resolve that transcends nihilism and provides a personal sense of self-justification."

     Chris Bongie. Exotic Memories: Literature, Colonialism, and the Fin de Siecle. Stanford University Press, 1991.

"This book focuses on exotic literature at the turn of the 20th century and how it foreshadowed  turn of the next century. Earlier writers of exoticism had turned away from the West and its modernity, rejecting the social changes caused by industrialization and displacing onto 'savage' or 'primitive' cultures their aspirations for political freedom. By the turn of the 20th century, however, European nations had reduced vast areas of the globe to colonial status: this global exportation of Western cultural norms and economic systems had a critical effect on the literature of exoticism. Bongie concentrates on four writers--Jules Verne, Pierre Loti, Victor Segalen, and particularly Joseph Conrad--although he touches on a number of other writers, and even painters, like Paul Gauguin.  Making an explicit link between turn-of-the-century exoticism and the present day, the book concludes with a critical assessment of Pier Paolo Pasolini's neo-exoticist attachment to a supposedly revolutionary Third World in his poetry and literary criticism. The book's critical stance draws its basic assumptions from pensiero debole, the 'weak thought' of the contemporary Italian philosopher Gianni Vattimo."

     Robert Burden. Heart of Darkness. Macmillan Education, 1991.

"The purpose of this book is to help delineate various critical approaches to Heart of Darkness. Its aim is to help the reader come to terms with the variety of criticism and to introduce him or her to further reading on the subject and to a fuller evaluation of a particular text by illustrating the way it has been approached in a number of contexts. In the first part of the book, a critical survey is given of some of the major ways the text has been appraised, specifically by means of biographical criticism, mythic criticism, psychoanalytic criticism, anthropological criticism, political criticism, narratological criticism, Marxist criticism, stylistic analysis, and in light of the Realist and Modernist movements. In the second part, Burden provides his own appraisal of the text from the position of discourse theory, allowing the reader the knowledge of his own particular approach from which his views may in turn be evaluated. The series therein hopes to introduce and to elucidate criticism of Heart of Darkness and to encourage participation as the critics debate."

     Nick De Marco. "Liberty" and "Bread": The Problem of Perception in Conrad, a Critical Study of Under Western Eyes. Marino Solfanelli Editore, 1991.

     Daphna Erdinast-Vulcan. Joseph Conrad and the Modern Temper. Clarendon Press, 1991.

"This study relates Conrad's works to the cultural critics of the late nineteenth century, the post- Nietzschean phase of modernity. It discusses 'faultlines'--ambiguities and apparent aesthetic ruptures--in nine of the major novels and novellas. These faultlines are diagnosed as the symptoms of an unresolved tension between Conrad's temperamental affinity with the Nietzschean outlook and his fierce ideological rejection of its ultimate implications. Presenting Conrad as 'a modernist at war with modernity,' the author studies the perpetual tug-of-war between the artistic will to meaning and the writer's susceptibility to the modem temper, both as a theme and as a structuring principle in his work. The modes of this struggle are defined as 'the failure of myth,' the 'failure of metaphysics,' and the 'failure of textuality.' This book draws on the work of Nietzsche, Vaihinger, Bakhtin, Heller, Macintyre, and other philosophers and cultural historians to present the ethical and epistemological issues which are interwoven with Conrad's aesthetics."

     Jordan Leondopolous. Still the Moving World: Intolerance,Modernism and Heart of Darkness. Peter Lang, 1991.

"This study argues that D.W. Griffith's accomplishment in Intolerance is, like Conrad's Heart of Darkness, a proto-modernist text. Both works exhibit an ahistoric consciousness of disorder, destruction and skepticism, and reflect--to different degrees--the aesthetic experimentalism of the early 20th century. Through a close analysis of Griffith's film and its manifold affinities with Conrad's tale--and more cursorily with the works of other exponents of modernism in the traditional arts--Leondopolous demonstrates that, contrary to the conventional criticisms of Intolerance as a cluttered, disjointed text, the film's eccentric form and unruliness are among the vital components of its meaning and modernity."

     Jeffrey Meyers. Joseph Conrad: A Biography. John Murray, 1991.

"Meyers narrates Conrad's extraordinary life and argues for many new connections between Conrad's life and his work. New models emerge for Kurtz inHeart of Darkness, for Razumov in Under Western Eyes, for Flora de Barral and Captain Anthony in Chance. He argues for the powerful influence of Jane Anderson on The Arrow of Gold and the significance of opera on The Rescue. He also discusses for the first time the unpublished film scenario, 'The Strong Man,' which Conrad wrote at the end of his life."

     Ruth L. Nadelhaft. Joseph Conrad. Humanities Press International, 1991.

"The book investigates the link between Conrad's writing and feminist reading by surveying his works from new feminist perspective. Working from a position which accepts that the notion of gender difference embraces interrelationship and reciprocity as well as opposition, Nadelhaft takes on the challenge of reassessing the problems inherent in confronting a 'phallocentric' literary canon, by investigating the processes involved in the translation of gender difference into the themes and structures of the literary text. Nadelhaft surveys briefly the development of feminist literary criticism and the broader questions of feminism which have been brought to bear on this practice, from the initial identification of 'phallocentrism,' through the tendency of early feminist critics to read literature as a sociological document, through to feminist criticism's current capacity to realign the discoveries of a wide range of disciplines in order to reassess theories of gender difference. The tendency of the feminist critic to privilege texts written by women and the notion that it might be possible to identify an autonomous tradition of 'women's writing' can offer a range of challenges to current feminist criticism, and Conrad's texts are considered in this light. Can there be a politics of feminist criticism? How might a theory of sexual difference be seen to be directly applicable to critical practice? The book represents a theory of gender difference, and, by assessing its applicability to the writings of Conrad, offers a revisionary interpretation of feminist critical practice."

     David R. Smith, ed. Joseph Conrad's Under Western Eyes Beginnings, Revisions, Final Forms: Five Essays. Archon Books, 1991.

"Essays include: Keith Carabine, "The Figure Behind the Veil: Conrad and Razumov in Under Western Eyes"; David R. Smith, "The Hidden Narrative: The K in Conrad"; David Leon Higdon, "Complete but Uncorrected: The Typescript of Conrad's Under Western Eyes"; Eloise Knapp Hay, "Under Western Eyes and the Missing Center"; Roderick Davis, "Crossing the Dark Roadway: Razumov on the Boulevard des Philosophes."

     Gavin Young.In Search of Conrad. Hutchinson Publishing Co., 1991.

"An addition to Gavin Young's travel books such asReturn to the Marshes and Slow Boats Home, this book takes the form of a journey to Asia in the footsteps of Joseph Conrad,  visiting all the places immortalized by Conrad and his fictional  characters in works such asLord Jim."

     Suman Bala. Joseph Conrad's Fiction: A Study in Existential Humanism. Intellectual Publishing House, 1990.

"In this book, Bala argues that in Conrad's fictional world the existential perception of the void is at the centre of things. Conrad, as early as the first decade of the twentieth century, became conscious of the human condition and explored human freedom and responsibility in an absurd world, but Conrad has no room for despair. As an existential humanist, he holds his faith in human courage and the human ability to face a hostile universe.  This book seeks to examine Conrad's major novels in the light of existential philosophy and to show that Conrad anticipates the modern humanistic school of existentialism."

     D. C. R. A. Goonetilleke. Joseph Conrad: Beyond Culture and Background. St. Martin's Press, 1990.

"This book does not provide a purely literary analysis of Conrad's fiction. Goonetilleke argues that that has been done often enough, and despite the structuralists and post-structuralists, he hold firmly the belief in the central need for judgement in literary study. He proposes to see Conrad's work as art in the context of relevant historical, political and biographical facts. He also suggests that such an approach, if it is to be profitable, must, in the first place, originate in and be controlled by a literary-critical sense. At the same time, one must be aware of the complexities of the relation between the world of the imagination and the world of historical, political and biographical facts. For another thing, facts, as they strike the imagination and are organised by it, undergo decisive selection and shaping. Facts themselves may be complex. The task is particularly challenging in the case of a writer such as Conrad: his origins and background are complicated, his life extraordinarily rich and varied (and difficult too), the milieu of his fiction, its themes and experiences extremely diverse. Goonetilleke also proposes to compare and contrast Conrad with minor and major writers."

     Robert D. Hamner, ed. Joseph Conrad: Third World Perspectives. Three Continents Press, 1990.

"In this collection, both Western and non-Western scholars discuss the works of Conrad. As a European writing about Imperialism in exotic lands, Conrad offers a confrontation between the cultures and peoples of the East and West. Issues of racial discrimination, imperialist exploitation, and accuracy of detail have long continued to interest Conrad's critics, though today an even sharper scrutiny of his works is called for. The essays included in this volume represent some of the most prominently cited issues in Conrad's fiction and, collectively, they shed light on the overall status of Conrad criticism, vis-a-vis Commonwealth literature. Essays include Hugh Clifford, 'The Genius of Mr. Conrad'; Florence Clemens, 'Conrad's Malaysia'; Hans van Marle, 'Jumble of Facts and Fiction: The First Singapore Reaction to Almayer's Folly'; D. C. R. A. Goonetilleke, 'Conrad's Malayan Novels: Problems of Authenticity'; Lloyd Fernando, 'Conrad's Eastern Expatriates: A New Version of His Outcasts'; Juliet McLauchlan, 'Almayer and Willems--"How Not to Be"'; J. C. Hilson and D. Timms, 'Conrad's "An Outpost of Progress" or, the Evil Spirit of Civilization'; Chinua Achebe, 'An Image of Africa'; Michael Echeruo, 'Conrad's Nigger'; Susan L. Blake, 'Racism and the Classics: Teaching Heart of Darkness'; C. Ponnuthurai Sarvan, 'Under African Eyes'; Wilson Harris, 'The Frontier of Which Heart of Darkness Stands'; Edward Said, 'Conrad: The Presentation of Narrative'; V. S. Naipaul, 'Conrad's Darkness'; Jean Franco, 'The Limits of the Liberal Imagination: One Hundred Years of Solitude and Nostromo'; and Peter Nazareth, 'Out of Darkness: Conrad and Other Third World Writers.'"

     Jeremy Hawthorn. Joseph Conrad: Narrative Technique and Ideological Commitment. Edward Arnold, 1990.

"This study argues that Conrad's artistic achievement depends on the interplay between technical accomplishment and ideological consciousness in his works. Hawthorn argues his case both through detailed analyses of aspects of Conrad's narrative technique (his use of free indirect discourse) and through interpretations of most of his major works (as well as some of his less well-known ones). His conclusion is that for Conrad craftsmanship alone is never enough: a firm moral and ideological anchorage must limit and direct his technique."

     Yves Hervouet. The French Face of Joseph Conrad. Cambridge University Press, 1990.

"Conrad has generally been regarded as a novelist with 'dual' Polish and English national affinities. This study argues for a triple identity by introducing the French face of Conrad's work, demonstrating that his knowledge of the French language and its literature has profound implications for the study of the novels. Hervouet documents chronologically the influence of French authors including Flaubert, Maupassant and Anatole France, building up a picture of Conrad at work. This first large-scale account of Conrad's involvement with a French literary, aesthetic and philosophical tradition provokes an important reassessment of his creative originality."

     Frederick R. Karl and Laurence Davies, eds. The Collected Letters of Joseph Conrad, 1908-1911. Vol. 4. Cambridge University Press, 1990.

"This is the fourth of eight projected volumes comprising all the surviving letters of Joseph Conrad. Conrad spent half the period of volume four writing Under Western Eyes and the other half recovering from the ensuing collapse. During the early months of 1908, the short story 'Razumov' began growing into a novel that embodied Conrad's appalled fascination with Russian politics, his misgivings about language, and his acute sense of loneliness. After the completion of the novel in 1910 and a vehement quarrel with J. B. Pinker, his agent, Conrad suffered a mental and physical breakdown whose effects lingered for many months. By the spring of 1911, however, he was able to resume the long-delayed Chance and enjoy a somewhat calmer relationship with the world. The tale of these years emerges vividly from the correspondence. Of special interest are frank critiques of John Galsworthy's work, manoeuvrings around the new and distinguished English Review, an indignant falling out with Ford Madox Ford, mecurial transactions with Pinker, enlightening accounts of writing in progress ('The Secret Sharer' and A Personal Record as well as the two novels), reactions to the tumultuous politics of the day, anecdotes about John and Borys Conrad, and evidence of new friendships with American and French writers, among them Andre Gide."

     Heliena Krenn. Conrad's Lingard Trilogy: Empire, Race, and Women in the Malay Novels. Garland  Publishing, 1990.

"Conrad's first two novels, Almayer's Folly and an Outcast of the Islands as well as The Rescue are set in the Malay Archipelago and Borneo and share common characters. Krenn analyzes the trilogy, linked by the character of Captain Tom Lingard, as a narrative and stylistic unit."

     Bette London. The Appropriated Voice: Narrative Authority in Conrad, Forster, and Woolf. University of Michigan Press, 1990.

"London uses feminist theory, cultural criticism, cultural ethnography, and narrative theory in critiquing traditional and revisionist criticism."

     Michael Orange. Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness. Sydney University Press, 1990.

"This book is designed specifically for university undergraduates and provides an up-to-date and readable analysis which encourages independent thinking about Heart of Darkness. The approach Orange takes emphasises a close reading of the text, allied to an overview informed by recent trends in criticism and scholarship, with a further reference to the literary and historical context of both Conrad and Heart of Darkness. This book also includes an extensive bibliography of criticism on the novella."

     Martin Ray, ed. Joseph Conrad: Interviews and Recollections. University of Iowa Press, 1990.

"This volume of interviews and recollections shows Conrad's complex and exotic personality as remembered by an eclectic array of friends, relatives, and acquaintances. Impressions are recorded from such vastly different individuals as his fellow writers, Lawrence of Arabia, and a regular at his local pub, all of which combine to give the modern reader a sense of the veritable zoo of characters bounding off Conrad as he pursued his lonely career."

     Jim Reilly. Joseph Conrad. Wayland Publishers, 1990.

"This study introduces the reader new to Conrad to the life and work of this major writer and provides other approaches for those studying hi at school or college. The book opens with a biographical section which traces the roots of the contradiction in his personality between authority and rebellion and his work's interwoven themes of 'solidarity' and 'secrecy.' Detailed studies of 'Heart of Darkness,' The Secret Agent and The Nigger of the 'Narcissus' discuss Conrad's troubled confrontation with crucial issues of his age: colonialism, modern urban life and the meaning of work, as well as the innovations in style that make him a major influence on 20th-century literature."

     Catharine Rising. Darkness at Heart: Fathers and Sons in Conrad. Greenwood, 1990.

"This study of Conrad's fiction addresses the protagonist's struggle to find (or keep) his place in a world of men. Structured around Conrad's use and subsequent abandonment of Oedipal compromise, the book provides a Freudian and post-Freudian analysis of father/son relationships in Conrad's work. Defining the father as any older male with power and influence over a younger one, Rising examines wide thematic variations that show Conrad's obsessive concern with paternity--as an object either of fear and hatred or of longing."

     Brian Spittles. How to Study a Joseph Conrad Novel. Macmillan Press, 1990.

"This book is a guide meant to show the reader how to organise a critical response to Conrad's novels and short stories. It provides guidance on how to analyse Conrad's major works, showing students how to discuss the themes, characters, settings, plots, and tone of his fiction. In addition, it deals with the historical context of Conrad's writings and provides advice on how to discuss such matters as his complex use of narrators and narrative time, his views on politics, and his use of satire and irony. Particular works analysed include Youth, Heart of Darkness, Nostromo, The Secret Agent, Victory and The Shadow-Line. The final chapter offers a step-by-step guide to how to write an essay or examination on a Conrad novel."

     Bruce Teets. Joseph Conrad: An Annotated Bibliography. Garland Publishing, 1990.

"A supplement to Joseph Conrad: An Annotated Bibliography of Works about Him (Teets and Gerber, 1971). The 2,000 items of this substantially annotated bibliography span a period of 80 years, beginning with Conrad's reception by his early critics, continuing with the critical reception of his works from 1895 to 1924, and then on for the 50 years following his death. Annotations covering 14 languages are included."

     David W. Tutein. Joseph Conrad's Reading: An Annotated Bibliography. Locust Hill Press, 1990.

"In this book, alphabetically arranged by author, lightly annotated listings reveal what Conrad read and, if known, when he read it."

     Cedric Watts. Joseph Conrad: Nostromo. Penguin, 1990.

"After a brief survey of Conrad's career and turbulent personality, Watts discusses the background and sources of Nostromo before examining the novel and its techniques in detail. He comments on the critical reactions toNostromo from its first serialization to the present and concludes by suggesting the imaginative pleasures offered by the richness of the text. Watts's flexible approach, by indicating a diversity of view points, directs the reader back to Conrad's own words with a greater understanding."

     Mark A. Wollaeger. Joseph Conrad and the Fictions of Skepticism. Stanford University Press, 1990.

"This book argues that Conrad's skepticism forms the basis of his most important works, participating in a tradition of philosophical skepticism that extends from Descartes to the present. Conrad's epistemological and moral skepticism--expressed, forestalled, mitigated, and suppressed--provides the terms for the author's rethinking of the peculiar relation between philosophy and literary form in Conrad's writings, and more broadly, for reconsidering what it means to call any novel 'philosophical.' Among the issues argued are Conrad's thematics of coercion, isolation, and betrayal; the complicated relations among author narrator, and character; and the logic of Conradian romance, comedy and tragedy. Wollaeger also offers a new way of conceptualizing the shape of Conrad's career, especially the 'decline' evidenced in the later fiction. The uniqueness of Conrad's multifarious literary and cultural inheritance makes it difficult to locate him securely in the dominant tradition of the British novel.  A philosophical approach to Conrad, however, reveals links to other novelists--notably Hardy, Forster, and Woolf--all of whom share in the increasing philosophical burden of the modern novel by enacting the very philosophical issues that are discussed within their pages. Conrad's interest as a skeptic is heightened by the degree to which he resists the insights proffered by his own skepticism."

     Joseph Dobrinsky. The Artist in Conrad's Fiction: A Psychocritical Study. UMI Research Press, 1989.

"This book investigates four hypotheses: (1) While the unconscious drives of an imaginative writer--of an 'artist' in Conrad's usual phrasing--are apt to be singularly strong, the practice of the calling wards off neurosis since it must rest on an exceptional ability to lay down one's anxieties, again and again, through their compulsively renewed symbolizations. (2) Both the content and the manner of the resultant texts, the only legitimate objects of literary criticism, can be probed in depth, as concealing and yet revealing the fantasy they rationalize, in search of an exonerating and identity-sustaining aesthetic applause. (3) In literary texts, attention should be paid not only to telltale imagery but also, with reference to Freud's Wit and the Unconscious, to latent wordplay (polyglot in the case of Conrad). (4) While the wide appeal of genuinely imaginative fiction--which subliminally depends on the reader's empathy and induced catharsis--assumes a representativeness of the subtext, the author's unique inner conflicts and the stages of one's highly cathected experience as a writer must also be echoed in one's fables.  With an emphasis on textual issues, Dobrinsky attempts to related Conrad's eminently confessional fiction to its two interacting inner springs: his private obsessions, as premature orphan, ambivalent son and nephew, guilt-laden Polish exile, and in latent references to Conrad's father--the propagandist, self-immolated poet, Apollo Korzeniowski--a no less committed preconscious reverie on the curses and blessings of this creative legacy and the attendant dilemmas of his own question for expression."

     Anthony Fothergill. Heart of Darkness: Open Guides to Literature. Open University Press, 1989.

"Heart of Darkness, one of the crucial literary works of the last hundred years, is also one of the most commented on. This guide does not try to add yet one ore account of what the novel is 'really about,' though it does introduce readers to the characteristic approaches the work has received, and helps them to adjudicate these. Rather, by a close and questioning scrutiny of the text, it draws attention to the way the work raises the major theoretical issue of reading itself. How do we read, how do we make meanings? And how do we represent these? The active process of reading the work seems to mimic the journey Marlow makes into the African interior: pitfalls and snags, alluring desires, frustrating delays and shocking glimpses of meaning characterize both. This guide suggests ways in which this can help us understand Marlow's own comprehending and telling of his experiences. For him, too, reading is inescapable. Thematic concerns like the portrayal of colonialism, the confrontation of the 'civilized' with the 'savage,' the representation of the 'Other' (for Marlow, the black or the woman) are all given fresh life when seen through this perspective. The importance of recognizing that Marlow's 'reading'--and Conrad's writing--always occurs within culture, within the historical and political assumptions and parameters of Conrad's own time, is emphasized, and helps readers toward a fuller awareness of their own activity."

     Owen Knowles. A Conrad Chronology. Macmillan Press, 1989.

"This chronology is designed to provide a clear and compact digest of Conrad's fascinating life as it developed from year to year. Its form--that of a series of diary or chronicle entries--caters to the reader who may wish to check quickly a single fact or find an answer to questions of 'Where, when, and with whom?' The main emphasis falls upon the unfolding course of a literary life spanning the years 1895 to 1924--its interacting and cumulative stresses, the history of composition and publication, the author's prodigious reading, and the significant friendships within the Conrad circle. With its up-to-date detail and accuracy of information, this chronology is meant to be an indispensable reference work for researchers, while students new to Conrad will find an integrated portrait of a unique literary career, with its significant phases, landmarks and rituals."

     Jakob Lothe. Conrad's Narrative Method. Clarendon Press, 1989.

"This book is a full-length attempt to apply recent developments in critical theory and practice to the whole canon of Conrad's works. Using a broadly structuralist approach, the book furthers the reader's understanding of Conrad's fiction by analysing the author's sophisticated narrative method--focusing on its devices, functions, variations, and thematic effects of implications. Narrative method is seen as an integral aspect of textual structure; but the book is not narrowly structuralist, for it is concerned with the relationship between Conrad's narrative method and the complex thematics which this diverse method serves to engender and shape. It also discusses the notions of major post-structuralist critics such as Edward W. Said and J. Hillis Miller. Lothe develops and applies a critical methodology which is flexible enough to be responsive to the varying interpretative problems Conrad's fiction presents."

     Lynn Sunderland. The Fantastic Invasion: Kipling, Conrad, and Lawson. Melbourne University Press, 1989.

"Rudyard Kipling, Joseph Conrad and Henry Lawson all wished to have their writings on colonial life accepted in London, the centre of the British Empire. During the 1890s each in turn discovered that the experiences he wrote about conflicted with the prevailing Imperial attitudes towards the colonies. The critics and the readers of the day wanted stories that reflected these Imperial attitudes. In the book, Sunderland seeks to establish the political, social and historical climate and examines the lives and short fiction of the three writers, focusing in particular on how they dealt with this crucial period in their development: Kipling, whose role as Imperial spokesman inevitably constrained the scope of his writing; Conrad, who rejected a similar role to present a more critical and complex view of Imperialism; Lawson, whose inability to resolve this and other conflicts led to a loss of direction in his later writing. This is a study of the early development of the short story, of Imperialism in literature, of the impact of the colonial writers, of Kipling, Conrad and Lawson--the flag bearers in the fantastic invasion."

     Cedric Watts. Joseph Conrad: A Literary Life. Macmillan Press, 1989.

"A sketch of Conrad's varied cultural background (emphasizing the Polish aspect) provides a biographical outline for this study, which then concentrates on the progress of Conrad's literary career, paying particular attention to his economic circumstances and the milieu of publishing. How did Conrad manage to survive, financially, during the twenty years between the publication of his first novel and his eventual attainment of security? What artistic compromises was he obliged to make? How did he manage to achieve, at last, spectacular success both among the critics and in the market-place? These questions provide the main themes of the study. Conrad often lamented his plight as a creative writer. This book suggests that he was remarkably fortunate in his circumstances, and that his publishers, his literary agent, his friends and collaborators deserve a large measure of the credit for the range and extent of his unique artistic achievement."

     Linda R. Anderson. Bennett, Wells, and Conrad: Narrative in Transition. St. Martin's Press, 1988.

"This book was begun as a response to the way critical discussions of the novel have frequently used the famous quarrel between Henry James and H. G. Wells to mark a decisive break in our understanding of the novel form. If before the quarrel the novel was a baggy monster, afterwards, taking up James's position, it was definitely art. Anderson is interested in the way historical definitions of the novel were, by critical sleight of hand, transformed into evaluative ones and how it was difficult to think about Wells except from the other side of this critical debate which saw him as simply wrong. In this book Anderson attempts to recover a historical dimension for that quarrel through an understanding of the ideas of and the debates about fiction in the two decades from 1890 to 1910. She focuses on the work of Arnold Bennett, H. G. Wells and Joseph Conrad, all of whom began to write in the 1890s and whose major work, she argues, was done between those dates. Anderson suggests that all three writers were having to respond to a major re-definition of the idea of the novel and its relationship to reality in the period and their novels, as well as developing their specific imaginative visions, and that they were engaged in maintaining a difficult balance between the increasingly polarised claims of society and art. Although the originality of each of the writers is acknowledged, their ideas and the structure of their narratives are also explored as a response to the historical situation which they shared."

     John Batchelor. Lord Jim. Unwin Hyman, 1988.

"Conrad's Lord Jim can in many ways be seen as the first 'modern' novel. This full study of the book emphasizes the outstanding historical and artistic significance of Conrad's masterpiece. Batchelor pursues the ways in which Conrad dramatizes with unprecedented fidelity a relationship between friends and also explores what for Conrad is clearly a central truth about the human condition, namely the inalienable loneliness of humanity. The book provides a full discussion of the biographical and literary contexts of the novel, making use of the original manuscript and tracing the literary influences and sources of Conrad's writing. It also considers the novel's technical innovations, including Conrad's 'impressionism' and its method dramatization. Further chapters are devoted to a detailed commentary on the text and the book concludes with a study of the novel's critical reception since its first publication."

     Mario Curreli, ed. The Ugo Mursia Memorial Lectures: Papers from the International Conrad Conference, University of Pisa, September 7th-11th, 1983. Mursia International, 1988.

"As the title suggests, this is a collection of essays from the International Conrad Conference University of Pisa, September 7th-11th, 1983.  The collection is dedicated to the memory of Ugo Mursia. Essays include Mario Curreli, 'Ugo Mursia: A Sketch with a Bibliography'; Sylvere Monod, 'Editing Conrad . . . for Whom?'; Ian Watt, 'Comedy and Humour in "Typhoon"'; Carlo Pagetti, 'Capt. MacWhirr between Form and Storm'; Todd K. Bender, 'Conrad's Lexicon'; J. H. Stape, 'Conrad "Privately Printed": The Shorter and Wise Limited Edition Pamphlets'; Zdzislaw Najder, 'The Sisters: A Grandiose Failure'; Jan Verleun, 'Conrad's Denouements: The Early Phase'; Keith Carabine, 'From Razumov to Under Western Eyes: The Dwindling of Natalia Haldin's "Possibilities"'; Gaetano D'Elia, 'Let Us Make Tales Not Love'; Adam Gillon, 'Hand Imagery in Selected Works of Joseph Conrad'; Juliet McLauchlan, 'A Reconsideration of The Rescue'; Frederick R. Karl, 'Life into Art: The Craft of Conrad and Conrad's Craft'; Joseph Dobrinsky, 'From Coal to Diamond: A Psychobiographical Reading of Axel Heyst's Progress in Victory'; Mario Domenichelli, 'The "Fair Harlequin" and the "Black Lady": Conrad, Shakespeare and Oscar Wilde'; Paola Pugliatti, 'From Narrative to Drama: Conrad's Plays as Adaptations'; Robert G. Hampson, '"If you read Lombroso": Conrad and Criminal Anthropology'; Hans van Marle, 'Conrad and Garibaldi'; Michael J. Larsen, 'Conrad and Coppola on the Struggle for Hearts and Minds'; Franco Marenco, '"Toil" vs. "Consciousness" in Conrad's Work'; Jetty de Vries, 'Conrad in Holland'; Ivo Vidan, 'Conrad in His Blackwood's Context'; Cedric Watts, 'Conrad's Hidden Texts.'"

     Gail Fraser. Interweaving Patterns in the Works of Joseph Conrad. UMI Research Press, 1988.

     Kenneth Graham. Indirections of the Novel: James, Conrad, and Forster. Cambridge University Press, 1988.

"The purpose of this book is to investigate the detailed strategies of three masters of indirection in the early modern novel: James, Conrad, and Forster. Different though the three are from one another, they are linked by this historically crucial development they each represented in the technique of fiction: the deployment of a radically new openness, obliquity, and contradictoriness of narrative forms, both in the large-scale movements of narration and in the smallest details of descriptive language, scene, and dialogue. And what connects them even more profoundly, below this level of technical innovation and virtuosity, is that their innovations articulate, and articulate precisely, a shared response to a world of new uncertainty and danger. They are all writers of the brink. Their narrations waver, take risks, are always on the edge of retraction or contradiction. Private dreams and fears suddenly change the direction of a scene or a paragraph. Intellectual or moral scruple enforces a quick reversal, a renunciation; imaginative desire swells into idyll, or the image of escape and a new start; an impassioned responsiveness to the world-as-it-is produces a cacophony of arguing voices, a quick temporary compromise, a sardonic shrug in the narrating. In each of these three novelists is combined, in the most lambent interplay, the highest degree of artistic, moral, and intellectual awareness with the most self-betraying revelations of unreconciled feeling: control against risk and disarray, sophistication against nostalgia, authoritative assertion against self-testing by irony or by whimsy or, in James's phrase for the form-seeking of the artist, by some 'deep difficulty braved.' Vulnerability is their obsession; the tell-tale vulnerability of their fictional characters, on behalf of all human vulnerability; and, not least, their pressing need as artists to find a form that is clear and definite yet will itself also be vulnerable, in the sense of being perpetually open, pliable, and sensitive to every nuance and change of fictional situation and of narratorial sensibility."

     Frederick R. Karl and Laurence Davies, eds. The Collected Letters of Joseph Conrad, 1903-1907. Vol. 3. Cambridge University Press, 1988.

"The period covered by this third of a projected eight volumes marks the years when Conrad stood at the height of his powers. It was during this time that he completed Nostromo and The Secret Agent. Yet, it was also a time of great personal unhappiness: his plans for leisurely, contemplative work were constantly interrupted by dangerous illnesses in the family, his own bad health, financial worries, and the pleas of editors desperate for copy. Conrad maintained his correspondence with old friends such as Galsworthy, Wells, and Ford, and developed a number of new friendships. This is also the period when Conrad became absorbed in political fiction, reflected in an intriguing series of letters dealing with Poland, the Congo, Latin America, and censorship. As always, the letters to his agent J. B. Pinker provide a detailed (and largely unpublished) account of the writer's monthly and weekly plans and literary commitments."

     John Lester. Conrad and Religion. St. Martin's Press, 1988.

"This book looks at the state of Conrad's religious belief (often taken for granted) and argues against much of the thinking in certain areas, particularly the gloomy outbursts that fill a number of his letters. It argues for Conrad's need for a creed and contends that this could not be satisfied by established faiths which are not a positive element of his fiction. Conrad's extensive use of religious imagery and language is identified as an important key to understanding his major themes and concerns, for it suggests that he was acutely aware of the spiritual cause of humanity's current ills and sceptical of the vaunted attempts to cure them."

     Martin Ray, ed. Joseph Conrad and His Contemporaries: An Annotated Bibliography of Interviews and Recollections. The Joseph Conrad Society (UK), 1988.

"The aim of this bibliography is to identify and annotate publications which record recollections of Joseph Conrad by those who knew or met him. In the selection of items for annotation, preference has been given to those recollections which have a literary or biographical interest, and this criterion has determined both the kind of items selected and the degree of annotation which a chosen item has received. Recollections of Conrad which give merely a pen portrait of him were omitted, and such descriptions are not annotated in items which are included. The opinions of his friends about his works are excluded. Priority throughout has been given to those items which record what Conrad said about himself and his writing."

     Steve Ressler. Joseph Conrad: Consciousness and Integrity. New York University Press, 1988.

"Ressler argues that the problem of integrity, the struggle to affirm self in the fact of devastating experience and tragic reality, is at the heart of Conrad's moral preoccupations. Concentrating on five principal works, treated chronologically, beginning with 'Heart of Darkness,' followed by Lord Jim,Nostromo, 'The Secret Sharer,' and concluding with Under Western Eyes, Ressler seeks to demonstrate a coherent and unified thematic development in Conrad's fiction centered on his abiding concern with integrity. Ressler argues that integrity evolves out of the conflict between Conrad's belief in the self-affirming possibilities of action and the imperative to test the moral substance of his characters, and Ressler presents an overview that considers integrity as a developing concept and places his analysis of Conrad's moral issues within a perspective of modernism."

     Jetty Verleun-van de Vriesenaerde, ed. Conrad Criticism 1965-1985: Heart of Darkness. Phoenix Press, 1988.

     Jetty Verleun-van de Vriesenaerde, ed. Conrad Criticism 1965-1985: The Nigger of the "Narcissus." Phoenix Press, 1988.

     Ian Watt. Joseph Conrad: Nostromo. Cambridge University Press, 1988.

"This book provides a close reading of Nostromo, as well as an account of its historical, cultural, and intellectual background, a discussion of its influence, and a guide to further reading. Conrad's great novel is a rich study not only of a typical South American country, but of the politics of any underdeveloped country, and for this reason it is permanently topical. Watt addresses Conrad's concerns when writing the work, and provides an accessible introduction, taking account of background, history and politics, and reception and influence."

     Anthony Winner. Culture and Irony: Studies in Joseph Conrad's Major Novels. University Press of Virginia, 1988.

"Conrad's major novels--Lord Jim, Nostromo, The Secret Agent, and Under Western Eyes--tell of illusions and betrayals, dreams and lies. Ambiguity, contradiction, and irony so dominate the narratives that the more closely one reads, the more difficult it becomes to know what is real or what is true. While Conrad's impressionism teaches one to see, his irony casts doubt on the meaning of what one has seen. Facts have little value, yet beliefs are futile or hollow because they ignore facts. Irony turns every certainty into uncertainty. Even the cultural values upon which the irony seems to rest are often mocked. This perplexity, which is the binding force of Conrad's art, is examined in Culture and Irony. Winner sees each of Conrad's novels as a variation on his essential concern: what happens when Victorian cultural faith collapses into the crisis of meaning out of which modern literature emerges? He explains that Conrad believed in something akin to Matthew Arnold's 'culture' (fidelity to the moral truth of culture will keep anarchy at bay) and that he combined this belief with an awareness that the values that once sheltered the lives of ordinary, decent people no long function in contemporary society. For Conrad, traditional culture is an illusion, but illusion is society's only hope. Winner argues that Conrad's use of romantic irony to maintain faith in 'ethical progress' becomes increasingly hopeless. In the last of Conrad's major novels, Under Western Eyes, darkness can no longer be held in check by this irony. His sole hope for culture then rests in those good women who disdain irony. As Winner argues, however, Conrad's idealization of women has always been tinged with condescension and distrust, and this hope may be read as the darkest of his ironies."
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