Gary Adelman. Heart of Darkness: Search for the Unconscious. Twayne Publishers, 1987.

"Conrad's captivating Heart of Darkness endures not only as a brilliantly innovative and continually controversial work, but also as the exemplary portrayal of the human capacity for good and evil. In this introductory study, Adelman tries to uncover political, metaphysical, and prophetic insights through a close analysis of the text. He attempts to clarify the novel's suggestive narrative and recurring symbols to illustrate how Conrad dramatizes an internal, psychological process: the surfacing of savage latent impulses in the absence of social restraints. Adelman's examination of the novel's historical, cultural, and intellectual background seeks to make Conrad's multilayered themes and opulent prose clearly accessible. Special treatment is given to the recent debates surrounding the controversial racial implications inHeart of Darkness."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Paul B. Armstrong. The Challenge of Bewilderment: Understanding and Representation in James, Conrad, and Ford. Cornell University Press, 1987.

"This book has three central, related concerns. It tries first to describe precisely and in detail the epistemologies implicit in the adventures of interpretation which the characters undergo in the novels of Henry James, Joseph Conrad, and Ford Madox Ford. For these pivotal writers in the history of the novel, the act of understanding is a drama in its own right, and we should consequently distinguish with some care the similarities and differences that mark their attitudes toward knowing. Second, however, their investigations of understanding also lead them to experiment with the workings of representation. Their narrative experiments expose the ways in which the conventions of realism take advantage of our every-day epistemological habits in order to give us an illusion of immersion in a lifelike world. Third, and consequently their strategies of representation are a challenge to the reader to reflect about realism and interpretation. James, Conrad, and Ford manipulate the readers response to their works so as to educate about processes of construing and creating meaning, which usually go unnoticed in our unreflective engagement with objects, people, and texts. The argument joining these three concerns is that James, Conrad, and Ford help inaugurate the self-consciousness of the modern novel about signs and interpretation by shifting the focus of the genre from constructing lifelike worlds to exploring the dynamics of world construction."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Ted Billy, ed. Critical Essays on Joseph Conrad. G. K. Hall, 1987.

"Billy's introduction begins with biographical material relevant to Conrad's fiction and proceeds to a discussion of his letters and personality before presenting an overview of the major critical questions associated with Conrad's work. These include questions of Conrad's place in literature, especially his modernity, his technical experimentation, his language, and his association with Ford and impressionism. The bibliography of works Billy cites in his discussion are meant to be helpful to students of Conrad's novels. In his selection of essays, Billy chooses five which provide overviews of different critical aspects of Conrad's work: historical perspective, narrative structure, plot, and language. Each of the remaining six essays concentrates on a major novel: Lord Jim, Heart of Darkness, Nostromo, Victory,Under Western Eyes, and The Secret Agent. The range of critical stances covers the whole critical spectrum from traditional New Criticism to postmodern approaches. Essays include: Zdzislaw Najder, 'Conrad in His Historical Perspective'; Edward W. Said, 'Conrad: The Presentation of Narrative'; Martin Ray, 'Language and Silence in the Novels of Joseph Conrad'; Cedric Watts, 'Conrad's Covert Plots and Transtextual Narratives'; John F. Van Dornelen, 'Conrad and the Power of Rhetoric'; Ian P. Watt, 'The Ending of Lord Jim'; Jerry Wasserman, 'Narrative Presence: The Illusion of Language in Heart of Darkness'; Leonard Orr, 'The Semiotics of Description in Conrad's Nostromo'; William W. Bonney 'Narrative Perspective in Victory: The Thematic Relevance'; Penn B. Szittya, 'Metafiction: The Double Narration in Under Western Eyes'; William Bysshe Stein, 'The Secret Agent: The Agon(ie)s of the Word.'"

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Harold Bloom, ed. Modern Critical Interpretations: Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness. Chelsea House, 1987.

"Conrad's Heart of Darkness is not simply a critique of colonialism in the Congo; it is a tale of the human tendency toward self-endangering corruptibility. Bloom suggests it has taken on some power of myth. This book presents 20th-century criticism on Heart of Darkness through extracts of critical essays by well-known literary critics. This collection of criticism also features a short biography on Conrad, a chronology of the author's life, and an introductory essay written by Bloom. Essays include Harold Bloom, 'Introduction'; Albert J. Guerard, 'The Journey Within'; James Guetti, 'Heart of Darkness: The Failure of Imagination'; C. B. Cox, 'Heart of Darkness: A Choice of Nightmares?'; Bruce Henricksen, 'Heart of Darkness and Gnostic Myth'; R. A. Gekoski, 'Heart of Darkness'; Ian Watt, 'Heart of Darkness and Nineteenth-Century Thought'; John Tessitore, 'Freud, Conrad, and Heart of Darkness'; Peter Brooks, 'An Unreadable Report: Conrad's Heart of Darkness'; Aaron Fogel, 'Forceful Overhearing.'"

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Harold Bloom, ed. Modern Critical Interpretations: Joseph Conrad's Lord Jim. Chelsea House, 1987.

"This text presents critical essays that reflect a variety of schools of criticism on this novel. This volume also contains an introductory essay by Bloom, critical biographies, notes on the contributing critics, a chronology of the author's life, and an index. Ian Watt ('The Ending') deems the novel's end to be an intersection of romance and tragedy in which Jim preserves dignity in self-sacrifice, and the deconstructionist J. Hillis Miller ('Lord Jim: Repetition as Subversion of Organic Form') underscores the novel's self-referentiality and its therefore enigmatically protean interpretation. Other essays include: Elliott B. Gose, Jr., 'The Truth in the Well'; Peter J. Glassman, 'An Intelligible Picture: Lord Jim'; D. M. Halperin, 'Lord Jim and the Pear Tree Caper'; Suresh Raval, 'Narrative and Authority in Lord Jim: Conrad's Art of Failure'; Daniel Cottom, 'Lord Jim: Destruction Through Time.'"

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Harold Bloom, ed. Modern Critical Interpretations: Joseph Conrad's Nostromo. Chelsea House, 1987.

"This text presents critical essays that reflect a variety of schools of criticism on this novel. This volume also contains an introductory essay by Bloom, critical biographies, notes on the contributing critics, a chronology of the Conrad's life, and an index. Nostromo's magnitude is discovered in the diversity of the critical response to it. Robert Penn Warren ('"The Great Mirage": Conrad and Nostromo') explores the novel's moral and dramatic strength; George Levine ('Continuities and Discontinuities: Middlemarchand Nostromo') places the book authoritatively within that tradition of great novels such as Middlemarch from which some previous critics have excluded it; Dorothy Van Ghent ('Guardianship of the Treasure: Nostromo') sifts through its folkloric and mythic aspects; and Aaron Fogel ('Silver and Silence: Dependent Currencies in Nostromo') reads it in terms of its dependent currencies of silver and silence. Other essays include: Kiernan Ryan, 'Revelation and Repression in Conrad's Nostromo'; T. McAlindon, 'Nostromo: Conrad's Organicist Philosophy of History'; Martin Price, 'The Limits of Irony'; and Stephen K. Land, 'Four Views of the Hero.'"

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Patrick J. Whiteley. Knowledge and Experimental Realism in Conrad, Lawrence, and Woolf. Louisiana State University Press, 1987.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Robert Wilson. Conrad's Mythology. Whitson, 1987.

"Wilson analyzes Conrad's multi-level style of writing--a tri-partate structure consisting of rendering, or the use of realistic details to present a convincing story; symbol patterns, or allusive details surrounding characters; and a final meaning, or the philosophical abstractions to be deduced from his books."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Harold Bloom, ed. Modern Critical Interpretations: Joseph Conrad. Chelsea House, 1986.

"This book gathers a representative selection of contemporary criticism as well as an introductory essay by Harold Bloom, a bibliography, and a chronology. Essays include: Ian Watt, 'Conrad Criticism and The Nigger of the "Narcissus"'; Edward W. Said, 'The Past and the Present: Conrad's Shorter Fiction'; Norman N. Holland, 'Style as Character: The Secret Agent'; R. W. B. Lewis, 'The Current of Conrad's Victory'; Ian Watt, 'Impressionism and Symbolism in Heart of Darkness'; Joan E. Steiner, '"The Secret Sharer": Complexities of the Doubling Relationship'; Daniel Melnick, 'The Morality of Conrad's Imagination: Heart of Darkness and Nostromo'; Adam Gillon, 'Under Western Eyes, Chance, and Victory'; Ruth Nadelhaft, 'Women as Moral and Political Alternatives in Conrad's Early Novels'; J. Hillis Miller, 'Lord Jim: Repetition as Subversion of Organic Form'; Martin Price, 'The Limits of Irony: Lord Jim and Nostromo'; Aaron Fogel, 'Silver and Silence: Dependent Currencies in Nostromo.'"

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Frederick R. Karl and Laurence Davies, eds. The Collected Letters of Joseph Conrad, 1898-1902. Vol. 2. Cambridge University Press, 1986.

"This is the second of a projected eight volumes comprising all the surviving letters of Joseph Conrad. The period covered by this volume, 1898-1902, was one of considerable achievement and anxiety for Conrad: both factors are reflected in these letters. The birth of his first child, the death of Stephen Crane, the murder of a friend's son, an encounter with an early X-ray machine and wars in Cuba and South--these events forced Conrad to face the problems of identity in terms of family, nation, history, and the cosmic order. At the same time, his work consciously began to assume a distinctively 'modern' quality, for this is the period of 'Youth,' 'Amy Foster,' 'Typhoon,' Lord Jim, and 'Heart of Darkness.' Among the abundance of unpublished writing are letters to Galsworthy, his pupil, friend, and benefactor; to Pinker, his newly acquired agent; and, most strikingly, to Ford Madox Ford, his partner in an improbable but spirited collaboration. Often funny, always thoughtful, full of verbal energy even in the toils of severe depression, the letters in volume two present Conrad at a crucial though vulnerable moment of his life and literary career."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  David Lucking. Conrad's Mysteries: Variations on an Archetypal Theme. Edizioni Milella, 1986.

"Lucking discusses the religious conception, a conception, he argues, to which Conrad was irresistibly drawn as providing the only morally acceptable account of experience, as it informs, and is qualified by, the rationalist outlook to which the author was intellectually committed.¬  The tension that makes itself felt on the personal level as a compulsion to seek secular solutions to problems which are essentially religious in character manifests itself in the public domain of the written word as a radical ambivalence regarding certain areas of experience, an ambivalence which at times assumes the status of a formal dialectic in the author's work.¬  Introduced into experiential contexts which they fail to compose except parodically, the religious metaphors and mythic patterns of which the author avails himself to articulate a searching critique of modern life, illuminating the shortcomings of a world in which they can often survive only as caricatures."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Norman Page. A Conrad Companion. Macmillan, 1986.

"Conrad is now recognized as one of the founding fathers of modernism and one of the greatest novelists to have written in the English language. His life and work are full of fascination as well as of pitfalls for the unwary. Exceptional, even in some respects unique, in his background, complex in his personality, dedicated to his art but plagued by failure and ill-health, the real Conrad is a far cry from the simple master mariner of popular legend, amiably turning his experiences into yarns of seafaring life. Earlier accounts of his life and work have often suffered from taking his own versions of the truth at face value. The most reliable recent scholarship has effected a 'demythification' of Conrad, and there has been much revision of what had previously been taken for granted. This volume synthesizes some of the most important and up-to-date findings of recent biographers and critics. It is intended both for the student who wishes to acquaint himself with the outlines of Conrad's career and to gain an overview of his work, and also for the reader who already knows his Conrad but will often need to check a date, name or fact. Five biographical sections-- 'A Conrad Chronology,' 'A Conrad Who's Who,' 'Conrad's World,' 'Conrad Observed,' and 'Conrad's Languages'--are followed by sections devoted to his fictional and non-fictional writings in which the student and reader will find information on the genesis, composition, publication and reception of Conrad's books together with an indication of some of the main lines of interpretation, criticism and evaluation. There are also a filmography and a select bibliography."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Suresh Raval. The Art of Failure: Conrad's Fiction. Allen & Unwin, 1986.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Todd K. Bender. A Concordance to Conrad's The Rescue. Garland Publishing, 1985.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Todd K. Bender and James W. Parins. A Concordance to Conrad's Romance. Garland Publishing, 1985.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Raymond Brebach. Joseph Conrad, Ford Madox Ford, and the Making of Romance. UMI Research Press, 1985.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Mark Conroy. Modernism and Authority: Strategies of Legitimation in Flaubert and Conrad. John Hopkins University Press, 1985.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Aaron Fogel. Coercion to Speak: Conrad's Poetics of Dialogue. Harvard University Press, 1985.

"Novelists have individually distinctive ideas of dialogue, Fogel argues. In this analysis of Conrad's narrative craft he explores--with broad implications--the theory and uses of dialogue. Conrad's was a distinctive reading of the English language conditioned by his particular idea of forced speech and forced writing. Fogel attempts to show how Conrad shaped ideas and events and interpreted character and institutions by means of dialogues representing not free exchange but various forms of forcing another to respond. He applied this format not only to the obvious political contexts, such as inquisition or spying, but also to seemingly more private relations, such as marriage, commerce, and storytelling. His idea of dialogue shaded the meanings he gave to words--even to characters' names. Conrad is particularly interested in scenes in which a speech-forcer is surprised, repudiated, or punished. Fogel concludes that Conrad increasingly saw the punishment of the speech-forcer as classically related to Oedipus inquiries, in which the provided answers rebound upon and destroy the forcer. This punishment is--as Shakespeare, Scott, and Wordsworth also dramatically intuited--the classical Oedipal dialogue scene. Fogel's analysis ranges widely over Conrad's fiction but focuses especially on Nostromo, The Secret Agent, and Under Western Eyes. His readings offer a balanced critique of Mikhail Bakhtin's theories about dialogic. Conrad's novels have many of the features Bakhtin identified as dialogical; but he was preoccupied with coercion in dialogic form. Fogel proposes that to understand this form is to begin to reconsider our political and aesthetic assumptions about what dialogue is or out go be."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Asher Z. Milbauer. Transcending Exile: Conrad, Nabokov, I. B. Singer. University Press of Florida, 1985.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Ross C. Murfin, ed. Conrad Revisited: Essays for the Eighties. University of Alabama Press, 1985.

"This collection of essays includes Ross C. Murfin, 'Introduction: Conrad in the Eighties'; Frederick Karl, 'Three Problematical Areas in Conrad Biography'; J. Hillis Miller, 'Heart of Darkness Revisited'; Bruce Johnson, 'Conrad's Impressionism and Watt's "Delayed Decoding"'; Hunt Hawkins, 'Conrad and the Psychology of Colonialism'; Avrom Fleishman, 'The Landscape of Hysteria in The Secret Agent'; H. M. Daleski, 'Victory and Patterns of Self-Division'; Robert Caserio, 'The Rescue and the Ring of Meaning'; Daniel R. Schwarz, 'The Continuity of Conrad's Later Novels.'"

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Notes from the  Editors: Eight Tales by Joseph Conrad. Franklin Library, 1985.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Helen Funk Rieselbach.Conrad's Rebels: The Psychology of Revolution in the Novels from Nostromo to Victory. UMI Research Press, 1985.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Robert Secor and Debra Moddelmog, eds. Joseph Conrad and American Writers: A Bibliographical Study of Affinities, Influences, and Relations. Greenwood, 1985.

"This bibliographical study records a wealth of significant references connecting Conrad to American writers (and vice versa) and illuminating his influence on their work. It lists and fully annotates any book or essay that discusses the relationship between Conrad and American writers. Chapters deal with Conrad's relation to writers ranging from James Fenimore Cooper to Ernest Hemingway. The final section examines Conrad's influence on a number of modern American writers, in addition to his works portrayed by American filmmakers and his visit to America. The indexes list the authors in the bibliography, American writers and their works in relation to Conrad, and Conrad's own works. A concise chronology of Conrad's life and an introductory essay surveying the findings of the bibliography and assessing their significance appear at the beginning of the volume."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Kenneth Simons. The Ludic Imagination: A Reading of Joseph Conrad. UMI Research Press, 1985.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ Todd K. Bender. A Concordance to Conrad's An Outcast of the Islands. Garland Publishing, 1984.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Arnold E. Davidson. Conrad's Endings: A Study of the Five Major Novels. UMI Research Press, 1984.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  David Leon Higdon and Todd K. Bender. A Concordance to Conrad's The Rover. Garland  Publishing, 1984.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Francis A. Hubbard. Theories of Action in Conrad. UMI Research Press, 1984.

"Conrad's style derives from his understanding of human action and how we talk about it. Our language for actions, intentions, the will, the emotions, ethics, and imagination seemed to Conrad a crafted language, like that of seamen for their craft, and he sought many of his most important effects through exploiting it. This book discusses style as the language of action in 'Typhoon,' Heart of Darkness, and The Secret Agent. Hubbard argues that in 'Typhoon,' Captain MacWhirr acquires an imagination by listening to the voice of the storm, a voice that has intentions and significance even though the Captain doesn't understand it. Before undergoing the storm, he cannot imagine that he could explain sailing around a storm to avoid it, since he wouldn't then know how bad it was. But afterward, he does display some imagination in solving the dispute among the people on board whose money has been thoroughly mixed together by the storm. In a more complex way, in Heart of Darkness, Marlow recognizes the fellow humanity of the cannibals he is traveling with, when he realizes that they are deliberately restraining themselves in a situation where they could have someone to eat. But Kurtz, who has no restraint, moves away from the connections with his fellows and moves off the scale of good and evil altogether, into what Marlow calls the dark. No human rules apply to Kurtz, but that is to be lost, not to be free. In The Secret Agent, the philosophy of bomb-throwing depends on a crucial misunderstanding of how speech acts work. If there isn't any recognition of an intention to communicate, that is, no 'uptake' of the act, the message the anarchist intends to send can not be received."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Michael P. Jones. Conrad's Heroism: A Paradise Lost. UMI Research Press, 1984.

"Jones's methods rely on his critical readings of the stories he discusses and his arguments remain close to the texts. The four main chapters of this book follow the development of Conrad's heroic imagination from 1897 to 1909 by examining the dialectics of the heroic journey in four of his adventure tales. Framing these chapters are more general discussions of Conrad and other heroic writers of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. For those readers who are less interested in literary history, it is possible to read only the chapters on Conrad's stories and emerge with a way to read Conrad that is intended to make him more fun and more comprehensible. The first and last chapters reveal some of Jones's historical concerns and attempt to show how this reading of Conrad may contribute to our understanding of heroic literature and help us better to define Conrad's 'place' in literary modernism. Conrad's Heroism is intended for an academic audience but is also intended as a book accessible to those who not only enjoy reading Conrad but who are interested in looking for critical commentary that may help to heighten their appreciation of one of the foremost novelists in English literature."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Stephen K. Land. Paradox and Polarity in the Fiction of Joseph Conrad. St. Martin's Press, 1984.

"The book begins with the observation that certain situations and dispositions of character-types can be traced in most of Conrad's longer works and in many of his short stories. Central to this recurring pattern is the placement of the hero between conflicting opposites and the development around him of a paradoxical situation in which purposive action proves self-defeating. Examination of Conrad's works in order of composition reveals a development through several stages with respect to this pattern. The result is a clear exposition of Conrad's chief concerns as a novelist, of the main lines along which he matured as an architect of fiction, and of the crucial turning points in his creative career."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Redmond O'Hanlon. Joseph Conrad and Charles Darwin: The Influence of Scientific Thought on Conrad's Fiction. Humanities Press, 1984.

"This study concentrates particularly on Lord Jim and follows Jim's involuntary journey down the long night of past evolutionary time as his internal regression draws him to the East, the home of Dubois' newly discovered Java Man and Haeckel's Pithecanthropus alalus. Conrad, fascinated by Darwin and by contemporary psychologists and anthropologists, traces Jim's descent into his own unconscious, and since the unconscious contains all of human biological history Jim's voyage becomes a series of broken falls from on evolutionary stratum to another. This book explores Conrad's fictional experiment with the biological problem of the roles of courage and honour, egoism and altruism, habit and instinct."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  James W. Parins, Robert J. Dilligan, and Todd K. Bender. A Concordance to Conrad's Nostromo. Garland Publishing, 1984.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Dwight H. Purdy. Joseph Conrad's Bible. University of Oklahoma Press, 1984.

"Purdy argues that probably through conscientious study, Joseph Conrad absorbed a culture and remade it in his own image. His art is an act of critical intelligence, a commentary upon all that is of the essence in English literary tradition. We study those essences when we study Conrad. This book considers one essence always acknowledged but seldom discussed, the rhetoric of biblical allusion. Revising the Authorized (King James) Version in his art, Conrad comments upon its vial role in English literature."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Ernest W. Sullivan. The Several Endings of Joseph Conrad's Lord Jim. The Joseph Conrad Society (UK), [1984].

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Wit M. Tarnawski. Conrad the Man, the Writer, the Pole: An Essay in Psychological Biography. Trans. Rosamond Batchelor. Polish Cultural Foundation, 1984.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Jan Verleun and Jetty de Vries, ed. Conrad's The Secret Agent and the Critics 1965-1980. Bouma's Boekhuis, 1984.

"In the book, the authors try to get a clear view of the basic tendencies in the criticism of The Secret Agent during the period 1965-1980.¬  They chose to begin with 1965 because the Conrad bibliography by Teets and Gerber virtually finished at 1965. The number of works included had to be limited, and the authors selected the Conrad critiques in book form written in English during their selected period of study.¬  They also chose books with clearly marked sections on The Secret Agent that would be of sufficient scholarly interest."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Cedric Watts. The Deceptive Text: An Introduction to Covert Plots. Harvester Press, 1984.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Todd K. Bender. Concordance to Conrad'sThe Mirror of the Sea and The Inheritors. Garland  Publishing, 1983.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  David Leon Higdon and Todd K. Bender. A Concordance to Conrad's Under Western Eyes. Garland  Publishing, 1983.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Allan Hunter. Joseph Conrad and the Ethics of Darwinism: The Challenges of Science. Croom Helm, 1983.

"This book shows Conrad as deeply concerned with human ethical motivation and its relation to the ideas of evolution current in his day. The book points to Conrad's detailed knowledge of the leading evolutionary arguments of the period--the disputes that haunted the Victorian world. Were ethics God-given or were morals merely an evolved attribute? Hunter argues that Conrad's novels are arguments with, and extensions of, the theories of Huxley, Darwin, Carlyle, Spencer, Lombroso and others on the nature of humanity. By taking the years of Conrad's artistic development, this study argues that he questioned in each of his works the leading evolutionists, and in so doing developed his own conception of what causes human beings to respond to the call of altruism."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Frederick R. Karl and Laurence Davies, eds. The Collected Letters of Joseph Conrad, 1861-1897, Vol. 1. Cambridge University Press, 1983.

"The first of a projected eight-volume edition comprising all of the surviving letters of Joseph Conrad. Conrad's emergence out of Polish and French into a full mastery of the English language is a particular feature of this first volume. It covers a much longer period than any succeeding volume, running from 1861 until 1897. It opens with a child not yet four, his hand guided by his mother as he writes to his absent father, and it closes with an author, exile, and master mariner just turned forty; the years of transition from professional sailor to professional writer are particularly well represented. In this volume Conrad is seen as acquaintance, colleague, kinsman, and friend. The letters range in tone from the cynical to the extravagant, from the courtly to the irascible, from the playful to the profound. His early correspondence with the publishers T. Fisher Unwin and William Blackwood is here, side by side with letters to Edward and Constance Garnett, marguerite Poradowska, R. B. Cunninghame Graham, Stephen Crane, A. T. Quiller-Couch, Henry James, and H. G. Wells which reveal more intimate aspects of Conrad the author. Letters to many other, less celebrated people disclose the principles and prejudices, the fears and enthusiasms of an engagingly complex man. The volume contains an introduction by the editors, extensive annotation, and a number of illustrations and maps. Volume One opens with a child, not yet four, writing to comfort his imprisoned father and closes with an author, exile, and master mariner just turned forty."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Benita Parry. Conrad and Imperialism: Ideological Boundaries and Visionary Frontiers. Macmillan Press, 1983.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Zdzislaw Najder, ed. Conrad under Familial Eyes. Trans. Halina Carroll-Najder. Cambridge University Press, 1983.

"In the last twenty years interest in Conrad's cultural roots has grown considerably, and with it the awareness of the importance of the Polish aspects of his biography. The present volume supplies English-speaking students and admirers of Conrad with a collection of texts which not only supplements the contents of Conrad's Polish Background, published in 1964 and of Joseph Conrad: A Chronicle (1983), but also considerably broadens and amplifies the picture of the great English writer's Polish connections. Very few of these texts so far have been available in English; several have never been published even in their original Polish. The texts included here fall, roughly speaking, into eight categories: (1) documents related to Conrad's parents; (2) documents related to his uncle and guardian, Tadeusz Bobrowski; (3) early documents of Jozef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski (Joseph Conrad); (4) letters to Konrad Korzeniowski; (5) Conrad's letters to Polish addressees, not included in Conrad's Polish Background; (6) reminiscences of Conrad, written by his Polish relatives and friends; (7) the interview Conrad gave to a Polish journalist in 1914; (8) two samples of the reaction to his work in his native country."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Zdzislaw Najder. Joseph Conrad: A Chronicle. Trans. Halina Carroll-Najder. Cambridge University Press, 1983.

"A mass of critical material unavailable to previous biographers has been brought to light in recent years by Najder, and his biography presents a new view of Conrad's career, expounding the facts and problems on which any further biographical or critical theory will have to be based."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  R. Ramachandra. Melville & Conrad: A Comparative Study. Vasudha Prakashana, 1983.

"'Prophecy,' says E. M.  Forster, 'is a tone of voice. It may imply any of the faiths that have haunted humanity. . . . Christianity, Buddhism,  dualism, Satanism, or the mere raising of human love and hatred to such a power  that their normal receptacles no longer contain them.' Melville, according to this vague--but impressive--definition, is a prophet, while Conrad, though a  great artist, falls a little short of prophetic stature. Ramachandra argues  that one may or may not agree with Forster's comment but that it provides a  tangential take-off point which illumines at once the similarities and differences between these two masters of fiction. One has to take into  account, in order to appreciate the complex nature of the spiritual affinity  between Conrad and Melville, the former's vehement but unformulated rejection of the latter. Ramachandra attempts to show that their kinship is as much  evident in their dissimilarities as in their similarities and that the likeness of  the two writers consists mainly in their disowning certain commonly accepted  values, and that the distinctive vision of each of these artists is mutually  complementary: only, Conrad chose to keep in the background the very issues Melville  brought to the fore. These considerations cause Ramachandra to devote more space to Conrad than to Melville. This work is at once an exercise in speculation, interpretation and literary criticism. Ramachandra found it necessary to make a study of character on a rather abstract level, through a discussion of  heroes as types. Here Ramachandra uses Auden's classification of the three  types--the 'aesthetic,' the 'ethical,' and the 'religious,' and related to these,  Tillich's concepts of 'being,' 'non-being,' and 'being-itself.' At times  Ramachandra elaborates on Auden's definitions and attempts to demonstrate that the  ethical and religious consciousnesses that operate respectively in Conrad and  Melville determine the nature of their symbolism and also offer us clues to their conceptions of evil as well as to their political dilemmas."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Todd K. Bender. Concordances to Conrad's Tales of Unrest and Tales of Hearsay. Garland  Publishing, 1982.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Todd K. Bender and Kirsten A. Bender. Concordance to Conrad's Typhoon and Other Stories andWithin the Tides. Garland  Publishing, 1982.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Jacques Darras. Joseph Conrad and the West: Signs of Empire. Trans. Anne Luyat and Jacques Darras. Macmillan Press, 1982.

"Darras argues that readers of Conrad should not look for signs of Polish cultural nationalism in his writing, or assume that, because he chose to write in English, Conrad became an Englishman.¬  Conrad's family's tragedy at the hands of the Tsarist regime gave a wide scope to his reflection on violence and aggressiveness throughout the 'civilised' world. Darras goes on to argue that Conrad wrote for, rather than about, the English and was obliged to conform to existing literary criteria even though the breviary of French novel-writing was not among them. This led to an artistic duplicity which was marked by a secret determination to carry his moderate opposition to the very heart of the language conforming the English literary criteria and yet all the while trying to make subtle changes in those criteria. Standing back from English traditions, Conrad was in a position to analyse the West and colonial expansion, which he did throughout his work. It is this aspect of his work with which Darras is particularly concerned."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Adam Gillon. Joseph Conrad. Twayne Publishers, 1982.

"This study attempts to explain why Conrad has arrived and what makes him our contemporary. It is intended for the general public rather than for the specialist who has no trouble navigating the high seas of critical literature raging about us. Gillon tries to examine Conrad's entire output, proceeding in chronological manner but departing there from when thematic treatment was deemed necessary. In his introductions to each work, he emphasizes some of these themes, e.g., betrayal and fidelity, crime and punishment, existential choice, isolation, human solidarity, and the destructive dream. His assessment of Conrad's achievement as a novelist is related, whenever possible, to his cosmopolitanism, his Polish heritage, and his affinities with English, Polish, Russian, French, and German writers. Gillon stresses the psychological and intellectual dilemmas of the Conradian protagonist, while also delving into the technical aspects of Conrad's art, suggesting, among other things, its painterly qualities. The major thrust of Gillon's appraisal has been an attempt to reveal the nature of his contemporaneity and the reasons he is considered to be a great novelist."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Notes from the  Editors: Heart of Darkness and Other Tales by Joseph Conrad.  Franklin Library, 1982.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Torsten, Pettersson. Consciousness and Time: A Study in the Philosophy and Narrative Technique of Joseph Conrad. Abo Akademi, 1982.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Daniel R. Schwarz. Conrad: The Later Fiction. Macmillan Press, 1982.

"In Conrad: The Later Fiction, Schwarz concludes his major study of Conrad's fiction which he began in Conrad: Almayer's Folly to Under Western Eyes, Schwarz argues that 'The Secret Sharer' and the neglected The Shadow-Line deserve to be ranked among Conrad's masterpieces and that, despite their shortcomings, Victory, Chance and The Rover are important works. His readings take issue with the views that Conrad's novels after Under Western Eyes should he read as allegorical romances or that the later works are fatally marred when they address the subject of heterosexual love. Schwarz argues for the continuity of Conrad's work. As in his prior study, Schwarz discusses the relationship between Conrad's life and work. Specifically, he looks at how the fiction expresses Conrad's psyche and values, Schwarz argues that Chance and Victory need to be understood in their historical contexts because in those novels Conrad wanted to prove that he was a British novelist and to write not only about manners and personal relationships, but to address some of the social and economic forces at work in England. Schwarz argues that Conrad continued to use his novels to define his identity and that the ageing Conrad recreated fictional versions of his past in The Shadow-Lineand The Arrow of Gold. He explains why finishing The Rescue meant so much to Conrad. In his concluding chapter, Schwarz suggests that the protagonist of The Rover relates to Conrad himself and that the novel's aesthetic integrity depends in part on that relationship. Schwarz's readings are meant lead to a significant re-evaluation of the quality and meaning of Conrad's fiction after Under Western Eyes. Although it presents an overview of Conrad's career from 1910, Conrad: The Later Fiction also can be consulted by readers, teachers and students for discussions of individual works."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  David Simpson. Fetishism and Imagination: Dickens, Melville, Conrad. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982.

¬ ¬ ¬  Cedric Watts. A Preface to Conrad. Longman, 1982.

"Born in Poland in 1857, Conrad began publishing novels in English in 1895. He was to eventually become one of the greatest prose stylists in English literature. A master at creating character and atmosphere, Conrad is famous for his portrayals of individuals suffering from isolation and moral disintegration. This second edition has been completely revised to incorporate the very latest scholarly and critical research on Conrad's life and work. It provides the reader with a concise but thorough survey and is complete with a reference section and suggestions for further reading. The book provides new material on Conrad's heroes and heroines which takes account of current feminist debate. It contains contextual material, historical, political, biographical, philosophical and literary, with a broad range of critical analyses and insights and it also features commentaries on two major Conradian texts, 'Heart of Darkness' and Nostromo. It is aimed at undergraduates and the interested general reader.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Henryk Zins, Joseph Conrad and Africa. Kenya Literature Bureau, 1982.

"This study is an attempt to answer the questions: what was Conrad's attitude towards Africa and colonialism and what were the historical, intellectual, and biographical factors which contributed to the image of Africa which we find in Heart of Darkness and 'An Outpost of Progress.'"

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Todd K. Bender. A Concordance to Conrad's A Set of Six. Garland  Publishing, 1981.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  John Conrad. Joseph Conrad: Times Remembered. Cambridge University Press, 1981.

"Though others have published reminiscences of Joseph Conrad, these accounts have frequently contained inaccuracies, sometimes even simple fabrications. It is partly in an attempt to set the record straight that John Conrad, the novelist's only surviving son, has committed these memoirs to print. John Conrad has not tried to import into the book the biographical interpretations or speculations of others, but rather to recall and set down as honestly and directly as possible what he remembers from around 1909 to the point of his father's death in 1924. Through his vivid and detailed account of the day-to-day existence in the various houses the family inhabited during this period, John Conrad is able both to throw light on many aspects of his father's life aid to invoke the sense of an era of English social life which has now disappeared. His memoirs are informal, often anecdotal, recording what amused, irritated or moved his father. He recounts a number of incidents which attest to his father's fondness for automobiles. He also offers vignettes of some of his father's friends and acquaintances such as Edward Garnett, J. B. Pinker, R. B. Cunninghame Graham, Ford Madox Hueffer, and Richard Curie. All those who read and study Conrad will find this an intriguing literary and human document: It offers a unique perspective: the everyday life of a great novelist seen through the eyes of a young boy."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  C. B. Cox, ed. Conrad: Heart of Darkness, Nostromo, Under Western Eyes, A Casebook. Macmillan Press, 1981.

"This book consists of several parts. The main section includes critical readings, a selection of reviews and comments by the Conrad's contemporaries, and an introduction that charts the reputation of these works from the first appearance to the present time. This volume includes selections from John Buchan, C. B. Cox, Richard Curle, H. M. Daleski, Avrom Fleishman, Douglas Hewitt, Ford Madox Hueffer (Ford), Edward Garnett, Albert J. Guerard, James Guetti, Bruce E. Johnson, John Masefield, Thomas Moser, Royal Roussel, K. K. Ruthven, Tony Tanner and Lionel Trilling."

¬ ¬ ¬  Paul L. Gaston and Todd K. Bender. A Concordance to Conrad's The Arrow of Gold. Garland  Publishing, 1981.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Eloise Knapp Hay. The Political Novels of Joseph Conrad: A Critical Study with a New Preface. University of Chicago Press, 1981.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Fredric Jameson. The Political Unconscious: Narrative as Socially Symbolic Act. Cornell University Press, 1981.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  John A. McClure. Kipling & Conrad: The Colonial Fiction. Harvard University Press, 1981.

"In this book on the fiction of imperialism, McClure portrays the colonialist--his nature, aspirations, and frustrations--as perceived by Kipling and Conrad. And he relates these perceptions to the world and experiences of both writers. In the stories of the 1880s, McClure argues, Kipling focuses with bitter sympathy on 'the white man's burden' in India, the strains produced by early exile, ignorance of India, and the interference of liberal bureaucrats in the business of rule. Later works, including The Jungle Book and Kim, present proposals for imperial education intended to eliminate these strains. Conrad also explores the strains of colonial life, but from a perspective antithetical in many respects to Kipling's. In the Lingard novels and Lord Jim he challenges the imperial image of the colonialist as a wise, benign father protecting his savage dependents. The pessimistic assessment of the colonialist's motives and achievements developed in these works finds full expression, McClure suggests, in Heart of Darkness. And in Nostromo Conrad explores the human dimensions of large-scale capitalist intervention in the colonial world, finding once again no cause to celebrate imperialism."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Notes from  the Editors: Nostromo by Joseph Conrad. Franklin Library, 1981.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  James W. Parins and Todd K. Bender. A Concordance to Conrad's The Nigger of the "Narcissus." Garland  Publishing, 1981.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Roger Tennant. Joseph Conrad. Atheneum, 1981.

"At a time when interest in Conrad has never been greater, Tennant has attempted to disentangle the facts of Conrad's life from his fiction to present a lucid and psychological portrait of one of the finest writers in the English language. The book is divided into three parts, the first dealing with Conrad's youth in Poland and his adventurous life as a seaman; the second, with his time of struggle and poverty in England, when he wrote his major works; and the third, with his final years of prosperity, including his triumphal visit to America. The vivid treatment of significant incidents in Conrad's life allows us clearly to picture and to draw our own conclusions about the complex author of Lord Jim, Nostromo, and Heart of Darkness, who so carefully concealed himself behind the books he wrote. Light is also cast upon the controversial issue of Conrad's collaboration with Ford Madox Ford, and upon the nature and causes of Conrad's alleged 'decline.' Throughout the book there is evidence of Tennant's deep affinity for Conrad."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Todd K. Bender. Concordances to Conrad's The Shadow Line and Youth: A Narrative. Garland  Publishing, 1980.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  William W. Bonney. Thorns & Arabesques: Contexts for Conrad's Fiction. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980.

"This book offers a series of new critical observations about the work of Joseph Conrad, based largely upon close readings of selected texts, many of which are rigorously analyzed for the first time. Bonney finds ontological, generic, and technical traditions and contexts that have influenced Conrad's art and that have yet to be understood in detail. The book proceeds from the most general topic (a discussion of Conrad's ontology) to the most specific (a discussion of the point-of-view devices and sentence structures that Conrad typically employs and that seem to be direct technical consequences of his world-view). The first chapter, on Conrad's ontology, builds to a lengthy discussion of a single work, Typhoon, and applies abstractions that were previously established by means of explication of isolated passages through a sustained exercise in practical criticism.¬  The same approach is used in the final chapter, which deals with Conrad's aesthetic techniques as they can be discovered in the semantic problems in individual sentences and phrases. In the central part of the book, Bonney defines some of the most important characteristics of the romance genre as Conrad inherited it in the late 19th century. The author proceeds to analyze at length Conrad's innovative and subversive use of situations and characters that are derived from traditional romance narratives. Conrad's pointed rejection of the redemptive coherences of 'teleological romance' is accomplished by means of a repeated innovation and inversion of tradition, a fact Bonney says has been largely ignored by those who have explored Conrad's fiction in other contexts."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  R. J. Das. Joseph Conrad: A Study in Existential Vision. Associated Publishing House, 1980.

"Literary criticism on Joseph Conrad is generally concerned with his 'romantic  realism or his fictional technique. His vision of life, though of paramount  importance for an understanding of his personality and works, has not  received the attention it deserves. The present study attempts to analyse  Conrad‚Ä™s vision from the existentialist viewpoint. Conrad had a keen  prophetic insight and he could anticipate the existential dilemma of man  well in advance of the two World Wars. Of particular interest is the  author‚Ä™s analysis of the vision which anticipates Satre's  political existentialism. With the treatment of humanity's  miserable plight in a hostile universe, his self-assertions for identity in  life, his sense of disillusionment, despair and alienation, his nightmarish  experiences of anxiety and absurdity, Joseph Conrad is possibly a link in  the long chain of existential writers, his stance being between Nietzsche  and Camus."

 

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Gary Geddes. Conrad's Later Novels. McGill-Queen's University Press, 1980.

"This book constitutes a detailed study of the later novels of Conrad. Geddes here offers a challenge to the commonly accepted thesis that Conrad's writing suffered a decline after Under Western Eyes was completed. Geddes argues to the contrary that Conrad remained eloquently in control of his medium, working variations on the romance pattern (particularly the rescue of the individual in distress) and creating a form which might be called the ironic romance. Using the ironic romance as a basic structure for the analysis of social, psychological, and philosophical issues that particularly concerned him, Conrad moved into a new phase of artistic consolidation and experiment. His later novels are more highly stylized and more self-consciously shaped than the earlier work; they also explore many of the structural metaphors, such as sculpture and painting, that are anticipated in his early preface to The Nigger of the 'Narcissus.' Geddes argues that critics have tended to misunderstand the later novels because they have neglected those techniques that deepen, modify, and render complexly ironic the surfaces of conventional romance which Conrad was working against."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Lech Paszkowski. Social Background of Sir Paul Strzelecki and Joseph Conrad. Australia Felix Literary Club, 1980.

"This pamphlet is largely about Paul Strzelecki (1797-1863), a 19th-century Polish-born explorer and scientist, who left Poland for England and traveled to¬  Australia in 1839, remaining there until 1843, during which time he traveled extensively and was credited with making various discoveries.¬  Paszkowski is less concerned, though, with retracing Strzelecki's journeys and discoveries than with demonstrating Strzelecki's membership in the the Polish gentry and how that social class differed from the upper classes of Western Europe. Paszkowski also makes a case for Conrad's membership in the Polish gentry as well, gleaning much of his material from Jerry Allen's The Sea Years of Joseph Conrad."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Daniel R. Schwarz. Conrad: Almayer's Follyto Under Western Eyes. Cornell University Press, 1980.

"In this book, rather than focusing on a single theme throughout the fiction, Schwarz considers each of Conrad's works as a unique imagined world with its own aesthetic and moral geography, and explores the work's contribution to an understanding of the whole. This volume surveys in chronological order all of Conrad's novels, novellas, and shorts stories written between 1896 and 1909. Schwarz discusses Conrad's use of the personal and omniscient narrator through a close analysis of the relation between theme and point of view within his works. Contrary some critics' view of Conrad as a nihilist and a pessimist, Schwarz sees him as essentially a humanist, deeply concerned with the search for meaning in an amoral world."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Werner Senn. Conrad's Narrative Voice: Stylistic Aspects of His Fiction. Francke Verlag, 1980.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Todd K. Bender. A Concordance to Conrad's Heart of Darkness. Garland  Publishing, 1979.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Todd K. Bender. A Concordance to Conrad's The Secret Agent. Garland  Publishing, 1979.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Paul Bruss. Conrad's Early Sea Fiction: The Novelist as Navigator. Bucknell University Press, 1979.

"Conrad first introduces his perspective of navigational traditions in his characterization of Allistoun and Singleton in The Nigger of the 'Narcissus.' By virtue of their unparalleled performances during the ship's disabling, Allistoun and Singleton not only serve as contrasts to the other sailors of the Narcissus, but they also become the basis for Conrad's broadening of his conception of navigational metaphor with the three early Marlows: the twenty-year-old on the Judea, who absorbs the great history behind the sailing tradition; the Marlow who, a few years older, journeys into the heart of the Congo and there discovers the bewildering dimensions of 'navigating' the darkness of all experience; and the mature Marlow who befriends Lord Jim and who, by so doing, becomes aware of the 'navigational' nature of all human relationships. After Lord Jim Conrad's use of navigational metaphor takes a sharp turn as he shifts his focus from the world of sails to the world of steam. In 'Typhoon' the ship is the steamer Nan-Shan, and there the captain, MacWhirr, is reduced to only the dull counterpart of his forbear, Allistoun. In 'Falk' the ship may again be a sailing vessel, but this time the young and bright captain is at the mercy of a tugboat skipper I whose motives are incomprehensible. In I both tales, consequently, there remains little of Marlow's almost boundless sense of self-realization. With 'The End of the Tether' and Captain Whalley, I the heroic navigator who in retirement shifts from the Fair Maid (sails) to the Sofala (steam), the decline of the metaphor becomes fully apparent. By joining the Sofala, Whalley violates the loyalties to sails by which he has organized his whole life and even becomes the employee of an engineer who owns the steamer. Conrad's two greatest works in the period, Heart of Darkness and Lord Jim, probably foreshadow the decline that becomes evident in 'Typhoon' and beyond. For both Marlow in the Congo and Lord Jim in Patusan serve as representatives of man entering a wilderness that is largely divorced from the great tradition of sails. Marlow may recover himself, but Jim does not."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Jeremy Hawthorn. Joseph Conrad: Language and Fictional Self-Consciousness. Edward Arnold, 1979.

"This book is organized around a detailed discussion of five of Conrad's major novels and seeks to demonstrate that a self-conscious concern with language and fiction is present as a crucial element within these works. As well as citing internal evidence from the novels to substantiate this claim, Hawthorn refers to Conrad's letters and essays and to critical and biographical studies. Hawthorn makes use of the theories of such writers as L. S. Vygotsky to argue that an important and unique feature of human language is its ability to detach itself from immediate, concrete situations. He suggests that writing and fiction develop this essential characteristic (along with its potentialities and vulnerabilities) to a grater and greater extent. Conrad's suspicion of language, and of the truth and morality of fiction itself, is explained in terms of the increasingly 'displaced' nature of such activities and their contrast with far more immediate and reliable uses of language."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  F. A. Inamdar. Image and Symbol in Joseph Conrad's Novels. Panchsheel Prakashan, 1979.

"This book explores Conrad's symbolic art as revealed in the entire corpus of his fiction and charts the evolution of image and symbol patterns which the novelist uses as central modes of articulation of his vision. Its object is to establish their cumulative meaning and to identify phases of intensification and relaxation of the novelist's art. Inamdar argues that the image and symbol patterns in Conrad's novels are characterised by continuity and interrelatedness. Inamdar attempts to show how these patterns succeed in evoking the novelist's vision of life and how the interative¬  symbols and images function as a creative and modifying impulse, acting on the reader's imagination with great cumulative force. Thus, this study seeks to fill a lacuna in Conrad criticism, besides offering value judgments meant to modify traditional critical assessment of individual works."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Roza Jablkowska, ed. Joseph Conrad Conference in Poland 5-12 September 1972 Contributions: Second Series. Zaklad Narodowy Imienia Ossolinskich, Wydawnictwo Polskiej Adademii Nauk, 1979.

"This is the Second Series of papers and contributions to the Second International Conrad Conference (September 1972). Perhaps Conrad's idea of chance was instrumental in the choice of one integrating point of view and represented by many papers. Namely, the exemplificatory material and evidence in argumentation was largely drawn from Lord Jim. It was then quite fitting to examine the ideas, patterns of moral conduct as set forth by Polish positivists of the 19th century, and look in the novel for Conrad's Polish heritage. Numerous Conrad scholars paid then their first visit to Poland, and the story of Lord Jim seemed to be a meaningful link between Conrad's Polish childhood and present-day Poland. Jim's complex of unreadiness at the moment of crisis, his pursuit of self-knowledge, his attempt at the discovery of these very few and simple ideas upon which man's universe and man-to-man relations should rest--seem to be of Polish origin, to be later strengthened and enriched during the writer's life on the high seas and in the solitary seclusion of his writing years. By another stroke of chance several papers in this Series center around 'Heart of Darkness' and show the writer as philosopher, sociologist and great artist. This time Conrad's remarkable creation of Kurtz in the darkness of his triumphs and final defeat, and also Conrad's supreme art of telling a story about an ordinary man projected against the deep circles of often inexplicable and horrifying motivation cast amid a vastly conceived vision of all human existence--these matters are examined from several angles. Other papers tell about interesting facts from the writer's life or show the features of Polish sensibilities in his art. Essays include Aniela Kowalska, '"Heart of Darkness": Kurtz's "Saison en Enfer"'; Witold Chwalewik, 'A Note on the Play of Poetical Allusion in "Heart of Darkness"'; Cedric T. Watts, 'How Many Kurtzes Are in "Heart of Darkness"?'; Mario Curelli, 'The Writing of Nostromo'; Cedric T. Watts, 'Conrad's Nostromo: Politics and the Time-Shifts'; Hans Van Marle, 'Young Ulysses Ashore: On the Trail of Konrad Korzeniowski in Marseilles'; Susanne Henig, 'Virginia Woolf and Joseph Conrad'; James A. Anderson, 'Conrad in America'; Leszek Prorok, 'A Watch with Conrad'; Witold Ostrowski, 'The Secret Agent as a Crime Novel'; Antoni Golubiew, 'The Trilogy about Tom Lingard'; Stefan Zabierowski, 'Conrad under Polish Eyes during World War II.'"

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Frederick R. Karl. Joseph Conrad: The Three Lives, A Biography. Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1979.

"Karl's biography considers how and why this son of Polish nationalist revolutionaries turned English seaman became one of the leading novelists in our language. These 'three lives'--as Pole, as sailor, and then as writer--were intertwined. Even as a youngster in Poland, Conrad was a writer in the making. During the years at sea, Conrad was observing with the eyes of the future novelist. And so, when he turned seriously to writing, in a language learned late and with his life more than half over, he was armed, prepared. Drawing on thousands of letters and other documentation, Karl integrates Conrad with the Polish, French, and British historical backgrounds; with the social and political contexts; and with cultural and literary influences, including Polish poetry and prose, French Symbolist writing, the English classics, and his Edwardian and Georgian colleagues and friends. Karl also brings psychological analysis and literary analysis to this biography."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Camille R. La Bossiere. Joseph Conrad and the Science of Unknowing. York Press, 1979.

"In this study, La Bossiere examines the principle of the coincidentia oppositorum as it underlies Conrad's fiction. La Bossiere argues that an understanding of Conrad's dream logic, defined in its negative relationship to Aristotelian philosophy, and considered in a tradition traced from Cusa and Caldron to a number of 19th- and 20th-century writers, including Slowacki, Amiel, and Claudel, assists the reader in perceiving the subsurface unity of Conrad's thought and art without sacrificing the integrity of the separate tales."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  James W. Parins, Robert J. Dilligan, and Todd K. Bender. A Concordance to Conrad's Victory. Garland  Publishing, 1979.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  J. A. Verleun. Patna and Patusan Perspectives: A Study of the Function of the Minor Characters in Joseph Conrad's Lord Jim. Bouma's Boekhuis, 1979.

"In this study of Conrad's minor characters in Lord Jim, Verleun attempts to help fellow critics assess the greatness of Conrad the writer. There will be few great writers whose excellence can be proved so easily by pointing to the sublimity of their minor conceptions, few great writers too who are in so much need of a proper study of the functions of the small fry that people their novels, With Jim, as with Nostromo, Decoud, Gould and Monygham, Verleun argues, it proved indispensable to a proper understanding of the protagonist (or antagonist, as the case may be) to weigh the nature of his relationships with the lesser figures surrounding him. The contrasts and parallels drawn have been 'anxiously meditated.'"

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Ian Watt. Conrad in the Nineteenth Century. University of California Press, 1979.

"This study provides a full account of Conrad's early literary career. Though not a critical biography, the opening chapter and the biographical sections that preface each subsequent chapter attempt to recapitulate the new picture of Conrad's life that has begun to emerge during the last twenty years. The main emphases, however, are historical and critical. Conrad was not anomalously immune to the historical process; his work is rich and diverse both in its inheritance from the past and in its reactions to the life of its own time. In taking up such matters as Conrad's relationship to the Romantic movement, to the popular and highbrow traditions in the novel, to the Impressionist and Symbolist traditions, Watt shows how Conrad's works stand in relation both to the multifarious literary currents of the late nineteenth century and to what we still call the 'modern' movement in literature. Conrad's social ethic was largely that of the nineteenth century, but his basic intellectual assumptions were very similar to those of the most original and influential thinkers of the last decades of the nineteenth century: and this conflict does much to explain the nature of Conrad's literary achievement. The third emphasis of Conrad in the Nineteenth Century is exegetic. The complete diversity--or disarray--of contemporary opinion about what literature and its criticism is or should be has meant that we are further than ever from anything like a consensus in our view of Conrad's fiction. Watt attempts to promote some measure of agreement through an interpretative commentary that restricts itself to meanings which the literal imagination can discover in a detailed reading of Conrad's text. This first volume deals with Conrad's career up to 1900, and concentrates on four works: Almayer's Folly, The Nigger of the 'Narcissus,' Heart of Darkness, and Lord Jim."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  J. Zaal. The  Kernel and the Halo: Conrad‚Ä™s Technique in Two Early Tales. University of  Zululand Publications, [1979?].

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