Jacques Berthoud. Joseph Conrad: The Major Phase. Cambridge University Press, 1978.

"Although the importance of Conrad's work has long been recognized, its intellectual coherence has been called into question. In this study, Berthoud attempts a full demonstration of the clarity, consistency, and depth of thought evident in the novels written during the first decade of the 20th century. Instead of the standard versions of Conrad--from sceptical moralizer to 'metaphysician of darkness'--he offers a tragic novelist, engaged in a sustained exploration of the contradictions inherent in human relations; and from that perspective, he attempts to show why Conrad occupies a leading place among the creators of modern literature. This book is intented to be of interest to specialists in English studies because it seeks to make a substantial new contribution to the critical debate on the significance of Conrad's work. It it also intended to appeal to any reader looking for guidance through the complexities of the major novels: the central issues have been presented as simply as the originality of Conrad's art and thought permits."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Sue M. Briggum and Todd K. Bender. A Concordance to Conrad's Almayer's Folly. Garland  Publishing, 1978.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  R. A. Gekoski. Conrad: The Moral World of the Novelist. Barnes & Noble, 1978.

"Early critics stressed Conrad's belief in the 'few simple notions' of service and social responsibility which provide, on an analogy with the merchant service, the foundation values of the human community. Recent studies, on the other hand, have focused on Conrad's commitment to a metaphysic that asserted the meaninglessness of life and the impossibility of moral action. The two positions seem sufficiently in conflict for us to understand why Conrad is frequently called 'obscure.' In this appraisal of the major novels, Gekoski tries to show, however, that there is no need to choose between the two views, which stand not in outright contradiction but in creative tension with each other: a tension that provides both temperamental source and subject of Conrad's greatest fiction. Gekoski traces the relationship between Conrad's metaphysics and his ethical beliefs, to reveal the heart of his concerns as a writer--the mixture of scepticism and belief that is so profoundly a product of our time. In this re-reading of one of the greatest of English writers, Gekoski attempts to amend some long established valuations of individual works."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Ranjit K. Kapur. Joseph Conrad: His Theme and Treatment of Evil. Bahri Publications, 1978.

"Kapur argues that Conrad's vision of evil partakes of existential and metaphysical concerns.¬  This study is an attempt to trace the patterns of evil in relation to Conrad's strategies, techniques and rhetoric. Kapur argues that Conrad's pre-occupation with the theme of evil brings into play all those anxieties, ambiguities and imponderables which assail the twentieth-century mind. To that extent, Conrad becomes a mirror of the modern imagination and ceases to be a sui generis case.¬  Kapur ventures to deal with the various nuances of evil as the colour and shape the 'psycho-moral-dream' of the Conrad universe."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Sanford Pinsker. The Languages of Joseph Conrad. Rodopi, 1978.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  J. A. Verleun. The Stone Horse: A Study of the Function of the Minor Characters in Joseph Conrad's Nostromo. Bouma's Boekhuis, 1978.

"The aim of this book is to show that the major characters of Nostromo cannot be fully understood without detailed analysis of the minor characters.¬  This book is also an attempt to vindicate detailed approaches as do not lose sight of broad outline and deeper artistic and moral purpose but which yet reflect an awareness of even the minor constituents of Conrad's artistic constructs."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Cedric Watts. Conrad and Cunninghame Graham. The Joseph Conrad Society (UK), 1978.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Jeffrey Berman. Joseph Conrad: Writing as Rescue. Astra Books, 1977.

"Berman charts a new course in Conradian investigation with an interdisciplinary approach, combining literary criticism with psychobiography. Though Berman is aware of the pitfalls inherent in the Freudian concept of sublimation, especially when it is applied to the artist's life and to his work, he attempts to show how Lord Jim is a genuine and a prophetic exploration of the subject of sublimation. Stein's enigmatic advice to Marlow 'to the destructive element submit yourself' assumes additional mystery when we consider Conrad's lifelong preoccupation, both in his life and art, with the embattled subject of self-destruction. For not only does Conrad's fictive world reveal a higher suicide rate than that of any other major novelist, but the mortality rate jumps if we include the ambiguous suicides, such as Jim, Razumov (in Under Western Eyes) and Stevie and the Professor (in The Secret Agent). This study attempts to show that much of the psychological and moral complexity of Conrad's art derives from the novelist's imaginative exploration of suicide; and that Conrad. who actually shot himself in the chest when he was twenty years old, is one of the first in the tradition of 'extremist' artists, whose perception of the abyss literally undermines their physical and psychic health. Concealing the secret suicide attempt from virtually everyone, Conrad nevertheless mythologized the wound in a purportedly autobiographical novel called The Arrow of Gold. He also repeatedly confronted the question of suicide in his other writings, though carefully disguising the 'figure behind the veil,' yet paradoxically, nothing more fully liberated Conrad's creative powers than the 'destructive element'; and he regarded the novelist as an 'escape artist' in the most profound sense."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  C. B. Cox. Conrad. Longman Group for The British Council, 1977.

"Joseph Conrad, who first became known to the public as 'a prose laureate of the Merchant Service,' was an altogether more complex figure both in his personality and his art than his early reputation indicated. In this pamphlet, Cox draws attention at the outset to the inner conflicts of Conrad's disposition. which were intensified by the loneliness caused by the early death of his parents and by his life-long separation from his native Poland. After surveying Conrad's early tales of the sea and of Far Eastern life, he discusses as length the major novels, Heart of Darkness,Lord Jim, Nostromo, The Secret Agent and Under Western Eyes. Conrad's special pre-eminence among modern novelists lies in his capacity to perceive the absurdity, the absence of meaning in the universe, and yet so hold on to moral ideals of service and duty. His 'bi-focal vision' held in balance contradictory modes of experience. Conrad's fiction embraces both problems of action and still more searching problems of conduct. In handling these he displays a rare imaginative courage, since without flinching from his nihilistic vision, he opposes to it those qualities of steadfastness and human solidarity which he especially valued in the sea-faring profession."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  H. M. Daleski. Joseph Conrad: The Way of Dispossession. Faber and Faber, 1977.

"Proceeding from Conrad's belief in a full possession of self as a prime value in life, Daleski presents a new approach to his fiction, showing how the question of self-possession became the central theme of Conrad's best work. His study traces Conrad's own deepening understanding of the theme that claimed him, following a development which led the novelist from an initial interest in physical panic to an exploration of the related phenomena of spiritual nullity and suicide. In his analysis of the most significant body of Conrad's writing, The Nigger of the 'Narcissus,' 'Heart of Darkness,' Lord Jim, 'Typhoon,' Nostromo, The Secret Agent, 'The Secret Sharer,' and Under Western Eyes, Daleski argues for the unifying force of Conrad's deepest concern, and attempts to show how his art moves to a paradoxical and complex triumph in his realization that true self-possession is based on a capacity for abandon."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  D. C. R. A. Goonetilleke. Developing Countries in British Fiction. Rowman and Littlefield, 1977.

"Goonetilleke studies extensively the British reactions to developing countries in the context of the historical, political and personal circumstances from which these reactions emerged. Goonetilleke concentrates on the best of the fiction which embodies the major British reactions to developing countries which at the same time reflect their respective periods in important ways. Thus he discusses mainly the reactions of Conrad to the Far East, Africa and South America; of Kipling and Forster to India; of Lawrence to Mexico and New Mexico; and of Cary to Nigeria. Goonetilleke asks, 'How well do these writers portray Westerners in alien countries and alien people in alien countries; how do the level and pace of development of each country shape the kind of fiction written about it; what position does the outlook of each writer occupy I the context of his period; what artistic problems do these writers face in common because they present these countries?' Imperialism, race relations and primitivism are among the issues raised by the chosen literature."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Richard  Gravil. Joseph Conrad: Nostromo. The British Council, 1977.

¬ ¬ ¬  ¬ Elsa Nettels. James & Conrad. University of Georgia Press, 1977.

"This book offers the first extended comparison of James and Conrad. Nettels begins her study with a brief history of the relationship between the two writers, discussing their various meetings, their impressions of each other, their criticism of each other's work, and their correspondence. There follows an analysis of their principles and methods, which concentrates on their definitions of representation, self-expression, and truth in fiction, their ideas of their creative process, and their conceptions of the novelist in relation to both his characters and his readers. Nettles also compares James's and Conrad's narrative methods, noting particularly the characteristic structure and patterns of action in their fiction, their use of imagery, their treatment of time, and their creation of a central consciousness or a narrator as the register of action. At every point, Nettels sees a close relationship between their narrative methods and the themes and moral issues with which they are concerned."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Edouard Roditi. Meetings with Conrad. Press of the Pegacycle Lady, 1977.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Cedric Watts. Conrad's Heart of Darkness: A Critical and Contextual Discussion. Mursia International, 1977.

"Watts's book attempts to offer the fullest available discussion of Conrad's most brilliant and problematic work.¬  Watts tries to examine every significant aspect of¬  Heart of Darkness, from the plot and characterization to imagery, and symbolism, and¬  pays particular attention to ambiguity and paradoxes in the work. By relating the text to a variety of literary, biographical, historical, and philosophical context, Watts explores Conrad's central preoccupations as a writer and as a commentator on his age. The critical analyses attempt to offer solutions to contentious problems which recur in various works by Conrad and other modern writers."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  C. F. Burgess. The Fellowship of the Craft: Conrad on Ships and Seamen and the Sea. Kennikat Press, 1976.

"Teodor Korzeniowski, better known as Joseph Conrad, went to sea at eighteen and spent twenty years before the mast, ultimately achieving command of a British merchant ship. Much of his writing, of course, deals with the sea, and every critical study of Conrad's work makes at least passing reference to his relation to the sea. Some studies have chronicled his sailing career--his voyages, his ships, and the men he sailed with. No study before this, however, has examined Conrad's writings to determine precisely the writer's thoughts and feelings about the sea, ships, sailors, and the invisible ties that bind all worthy seamen in what Conrad called 'the fellowship of the craft.' In this book, Burgess undertakes such an examination. Using the explicit testimony of Conrad's two biographical memoirs (The Mirror of the Sea and A Personal Record) and the wealth of implicit evidence contained in the sea tales, Burgess tests the traditional generalizations about Conrad's attitudes and finds them at best oversimplified, at worst--wrong. Above all, Burgess stresses, Conrad did not feel unqualified 'love' for the sea. 'Odi et amo,' Conrad said, and, as Burgess shows, he often depicted the sea as malevolent and violent. Towards ships, says Burgess, Conrad is more positive. 'No ship is wholly bad,' the ex-seaman wrote; in fact, as Burgess demonstrates, Conrad considered ships more faithful than many men who sailed them. The theme of fidelity is, according to Burgess, central to Conrad's sea stories. Fidelity is the prime requisite for membership in the 'fellowship,' and the sea stories focus on men who either keep or break that faith. In the course of his examination, Burgess looks at eleven books and stories, including, Lord Jim, The Nigger of the 'Narcissus,'Almayer's Folly, Typhoon, The Shadow-Line, 'The Secret Sharer,' 'Youth,' and Heart of Darkness."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  John Conrad. Some Reminiscences of My Father. The Joseph Conrad Society (UK), [1976].

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Edward Crankshaw. Joseph Conrad: Some Aspects of the Art of the Novel. 2nd ed. Macmillan Press, 1976.

"A reprint of Crankshaw's 1936 edition of Joseph Conrad: Some Aspects of the Art of the Novel with a new preface."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  John Crompton, ed. Wit Tarnawski: The Man, the Writer, the Pole. The Joseph Conrad Society (UK), [1976].

"This is a short pamphlet intended both as a tribute to Wit Tarnawski and as an introduction to his work.¬  It contains a brief introduction by John Crompton, a brief biography of Tarnawski, a bibliography of Tarnawski's work, and four short essays: 'Where Hewitt Was Wrong,' a brief rebuttal of Hewitt's arguments in his Conrad: A Reassessment; 'Pan Jim: Lord Jim and the Polish National Character,' a brief discussion of the character of Jim in terms of Polish national character; 'Nostromo and Flaubert's Salammbo,' a brief discussion of the relationship between these two works; and 'The Mirror of Conrad,' a brief discussion on Conrad's character."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Adam Gillon. Conrad and Shakespeare and Other Essays. Astra Books, 1976.

"These essays, representing a decade and a half of research and are a personal homage to Conrad on the fiftieth anniversary of his death. Mostly comparative in nature, they offer textual analogies between Conrad on the one hand and, on the other, Shakespeare, Dostoevsky, Tolstoy, Sartre, Kafka, Camus, Mickiewica, Slowacki, Zeromski, and others. Gillon attempts to shed new light on some relatively unexplored themes, e.g., 'Conrad's Archetypal Jew,' and provides an updated assessment of the novelists reception in Poland. The essays focus on the cosmopolitan atmosphere of Conrad's work and depict his vision of humanity as being inspired by the universal values of fidelity, courage, and perseverance in the face of adversity. Essays include 'Joseph Conrad: Polish Cosmopolitan'; 'Conrad and Shakespeare (One to Five)'; 'The Absurd and "Les Valeurs Ideales" in Conrad, Kafka and Camus'; 'Conrad and Sartre'; 'The Merchant of Esmeralda--Conrad's Archetypal Jew'; 'Russian Literary Elements in Joseph Conrad'; 'Shakespearean and Polish Tonalities in Conrad's "The Lagoon"'; 'Conrad and Poland.'"

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Peter J. Glassman. Language and Being: Joseph Conrad and the Literature of Personality. Columbia University Press, 1976.

"Glassman suggests that the extraordinarily difficult circumstances of Conrad's early life produced a pronouncedly vulnerable character structure which continually required to be sustained and sanctioned by the construction of an imaginative relation to its own past and to the outside world. Conrad's boyhood proposed itself as a protracted and largely unrelieved experience of isolation and distress. The dismal conditions of his early existence promoted in the young Conrad, among other symptoms of dysfunction, a weakened self-image and a habitual disposition toward self-detestation which, Glassman argues, Conrad could resist only by submitting his character to the protective apparatus provided by fictional discourse. Glassman further argues that in this regard Conrad's early novels ought to be read as the first expression of Conrad's remarkable effort to produce an externalized and durable identity structure. By establishing a direct link between Conrad's experience of history and the content of his art, Glassman develops a view of Conrad which for the first time places his character and his literature within the contemporary critical perspectives extended by phenomenological and post-Freudian personalist methodology."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Gustav Morf. Polish Shades and Ghosts of Joseph Conrad. Astra Books, 1976.

"In his volume of reminiscences, A Personal Record, Conrad for the first time spoke to his public of his Polish background. He did so with great apprehension. In his Author's Note to A Personal Record, he tried to exorcise, as it were, the ghosts of his Polish past when he concluded, 'these Shades may be allowed to return to their place of rest . . . awaiting the moment when their haunting reality . . . shall pass for ever with me out of the world.' We know that writing his reminiscences was not the only occasion when he sought 'discourse with the shades' or when, unbidden, they came to haunt him. Shades and ghosts assailed him quite often, as they assailed of many of his heroes. This book deals with Conrad's shades and ghosts. Most of them had to do with Poland. When someone for over twenty years represses the voices of his past and his national and family heritage as resolutely as Conrad did, for the sake of a completely new existence under a different clime, that past by necessity escapes his will power, becomes darker, more remote, more threatening. Like the spirits of the dead it may become a haunting presence and an obsessive influence--a process well described in Conrad's tale 'Karain.' It is this aspect of Conrad which forms the subject of the present study. As he once said himself, he was a 'duplex' man, a man of two natures. The more hidden side of him was Polish, and it was his darker side because for so long he had kept it in the dark deliberately. Yet it was this side that gave a dimension of depth and a haunting quality to his work. Morf explores Conrad as a 'duplex' man. A practicing psychiatrist, Morf examines the novelist's Polish background wherein he finds clues to the haunting quality of Conrad's work. This analytical biography of Conrad and the scrutiny of his texts attempt to reveal how the long repression of voices from the past affected Conrad's fiction. The more hidden side of Conrad was Polish, and it was his darker side because he had kept it in the dark deliberately and for a long time. Yet it was this aspect of his personality which is responsible for the special appear of Conrad's art. This book contains numerous photographs, some of them never published before."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  James W. Parins, Robert J. Dilligan, Todd K. Bender. A Concordance to Conrad's Lord Jim: Verbal Index, Word Frequency Table, and Field of Reference. Garland  Publishing, 1976.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Norman Sherry, ed. Joseph Conrad: A Commemoration, Papers from the 1974 International Conference on Conrad. Macmillan Press, 1976.

"Joseph Conrad was born in Russian-occupied Poland in 1857; he died in England in 1924. Poland's loss was Britain's gain. Conrad chose England as his country and English as his medium, and England acquired one of her greatest novelists, one whose experience was international and ranged from the society of the Polish aristocracy to that of seamen before the mast. This collection of original essays arises from papers read at the international conference held at Canterbury--the city in which Conrad is buried--to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of his death; the book shows both his international reputation and the wide scope of interest in his work. Bringing together the work of numerous scholars in the field, the book illustrates not only the traditional attitudes but points the way to new and future areas of Conrad studies. The collection is truly international and representative of the range of Conrad's genius as well as attempting to provide fresh insight into his life and work."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Boleslaw Sulik. A Change of Tack: Making The Shadow Line. British Film Institute, 1976.

This is the story of a co-production between a British commercial television company, Thames, and the State-run film industry of Poland. Together they produced The Shadow Line, drawn from the semi-autobiographical work by Joseph Conrad and directed by the eminent Polish film-maker, Andrzej Wajda. This book recounts the difficult negotiations involved in setting up the project, the many changes in the script and the complexities of shooting with both English and Polish actors on locations in Warsaw, Bangkok, Bulgaria and Liverpool. Sulik is himself, as Conrad was, a Polish writer living in England. Besides writing the script for the film he was closely involved in liaison both in planning the project and on the set. He is thus well-placed to chart the cultural tensions which were added to the more usual problems of the film-making process.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Martin Tucker. Joseph Conrad. Frederick Ungar, 1976.

"Conrad's major literary work is a reflection of both his esthetic and his moral attitudes. Caught between an urge to plunge deeply into experience and the artist's need to objectify and shape human events, he struggled toward the technique for which he became famous--the use of several narrators, each with a new focus; symbols and images repeated as a motif; psychological tension and awareness of change end coincidence. All this in a language into which he was not born. This adroit new study examines Conrad's most significant works in detail--Lord Jim, Nostromo, The Secret Agent, Under Western Eyes, and Victory--and as part of a pattern Conrad wove in a never ending quest for unity of spirit. Conrad's sea stories and his two superb novellas--The Nigger of the 'Narcissus' and Heart of Darkness--are given full critical analysis. Tucker reviews the findings of past critics of Conrad and fuses them into fresh interpretations, suggesting new avenues of approach to the work of one of the giants of modern literature."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Serajul Islam Choudhury. The Moral Imagination of Joseph Conrad. University of Dacca, 1975.

"Conrad's concern in his novels  has been predominantly with ethical ideas. This book makes an attempt to see how the novelist expresses his views on moral conduct through his construction of plots, choice and presentation of characters, and use of language. Conrad's concern in his novels has been predominantly with ethical ideas. This book makes an investigation into the novelist's formulation and presentation of certain key concepts of good and evil through his intricate construction of plots, the choice and treatment of characters as moral agents, and the use of words as images in his characteristically rhetorical style.¬  His non-fictional writings have also been examined. Conrad's points of meeting with the departure from Dostoevsky, whom he disliked, and Schopenhauer, in whom he was interested, have been investigated, together with his difference from two of his contemporaries, E. M. Forster and D. H. Lawrence.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Adam Gillon and Ludwik Krzyzanowski, eds. Joseph Conrad: Commemorative Essays, Selected Proceedings of the International Conference of Conrad Scholars, University of California, San Diego, August 29-September 5, 1974. Astra Books, 1975.

"The selections in this volume are from papers read at the International Conference of Conrad Scholars, held at the Revelle Campus of the University of California as San Diego (August 29 - September 5, 1974), and organized by Suzanne Henig of San Diego State University. The aim of the Conference was to offer yet another tribute to Conrad on the fiftieth anniversary of his death."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Douglas Hewitt. Conrad: A Reassessment. 3rd ed. Bowes & Bowes, 1975.

"Includes a new conclusion in which Hewitt reflects upon the progress of the debate on Conrad's work during a period in which belief in his greatness as a symbolic novelist has become orthodox. He discusses some of the tendencies in Conrad studies and, by implication, in the criticism of modern fiction generally. In these new sections, and especially in the Conclusion, Hewitt writes particularly about Conrad's political vision which finds its fullest expression in his masterpiece, Nostromo."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Roza Jablkowska, ed. Joseph Conrad Colloquy in Poland 5-12 September 1972. Zaklad Narodowy Imienia Ossolinskich, Wydawnictwo Polskiej Akademii Nauk, 1975.

"This is a collection of essays from the 1972 Joseph Conrad Colloquy in Poland. These sessions centred on the major problems of interest, namely Conrad's Polish heritage and his art of impressionism.¬  Both major themes resulted in lengthy discussions of Conrad as man and writer, followed by a review of recent trends in Conrad scholarship. Essays include: Julian Krzyzanowski, 'The Inaugural Address'; Ian Watt, 'Pink Toads and Yellow Curs: An Impressionist Narrative Device in Lord Jim'; Thomas Moser, 'Conrad, Ford and the Sources of Chance'; Eloise Knapp Hay, 'Conrad's Self-Portraiture'; Rene Rapin, 'Andre Gide's Translation of Joseph Conrad's "Typhoon"'; Gustaw Morf, 'Polish Proverbial Sayings in Conrad's Work'; Ugo Mursia, 'The Italian Source of Nostromo.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Frederick R. Karl, ed. Joseph Conrad: A Collection of Criticism. McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1975.

"This volume is designed for the student and the general reader interested in understanding the contributions of Conrad. It presents an extensive bibliography and recent criticism on Conrad: Frederick R. Karl, 'Introduction'; Bernard Meyer, 'The Secret Sharers'; Frederick R. Karl, '"Heart of Darkness": Introduction to the Danse Macabre'; Dorothy Van Ghent, 'Nostromo'; Robert Wooster Stallman, 'Time and The Secret Agent'; Albert Guerard, 'Two Versions of Anarchy: Under Western Eyes'; R. W. B. Lewis, 'The Current of Conrad's Victory'; Eloise Knapp Hay, '"The Artist of the Whole Matter"'; John A. Palmer, '"Achievement and Decline": A Bibliographical Note.'"

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Claude Thomas, ed. Studies in Joseph Conrad. Centre d'etudes et de recherches victoriennes et edouardiennes, Universite Paul-Valery, 1975.

"Studies in Joseph Conrad is a special issue of Cahiers d'Etudes et de Recherches Victoriennes et Edouardiennes dedicated to the works of Joseph Conrad. Essays include: Claude Thomas, 'Foreword'; Frederic-Jacques Temple, 'Joseph Conrad a Montpellier'; Zdzislaw Najder, 'Conrad in 1898'; Pierre Coustillas, 'Conrad and Gissing'; Jean-Jacques Mayoux, 'L'absurde et le grotesque dans l'oeuvre de Joseph Conrad'; Pierre Vitoux, 'Marlow: The Changing Narrator of Conrad's Fiction'; Francois Lombard, 'Conrad and Buddhism'; J. C. Hilson and D. Timms, 'Conrad's "An Outpost of Progress": or, the Evil Spirit of Civilization'; Germain D'Hangest, 'Sense of Life and Narrative Technique in Conrad's Lord Jim'; Joseph Dobrinsky, 'The Son-and-Lover Theme in Lord Jim'; Ivo Vidan, '"Heart of Darkness" in French Literature'; Claude Thomas, 'Structure and Narrative Technique in Under Western Eyes'; David Thorburn, 'Evasion and Candor in A Personal Record'; Jean Deurbergue, 'The Opening of Victory'; Jacky Martin, 'The Shadow-Line oules intermittences du texte.'"

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Borys Conrad. Joseph Conrad's Homes in Kent, with Photographs of the Houses as They Were in His Time and Some Biographical Notes. [The Joseph Conrad Society (UK)], [1974].

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  C. B. Cox. Joseph Conrad: The Modern Imagination. J. M. Dent & Sons, 1974.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  John E. Saveson. Conrad, the Later Moralist. Rodopi, 1974.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  David Thorburn. Conrad's Romanticism. Yale University Press, 1974.

"In this book, Thorburn offers a revisionist account of Conrad's place in literary history, emphasizing his affinities with the nineteenth century and with certain important strains in Romanticism. Thorburn sees Conrad as a less nihilistic, less apocalyptic writer than is commonly assumed, a novelist whose startlingly uneven oeuvre has much to tell us about the infirmities but also the resilience of the Romantic imagination in the earlier twentieth century. Seeking continuities in Conrad's writing that have been slighted by recent critics, Thorburn first examines the lesser works, devoting particular attention to Conrad's undervalued autobiographical books and to Romance, the little-read adventure novel Conrad wrote with Ford Madox Ford. Reading the more enduring Conradian texts in light of his analysis of the minor works, Thorburn argues that Conrad habitually relied on Romantic modes of story-telling and created fictional worlds in which alienation and despair are contained, however precariously, by a stoic Romanticism grounded in a sense of human sharing and continuity. This approach seeks to illuminate the major works and measure Conrad's struggle to avoid the simplistic primitivism and melodrama that are characteristic of a debased Romanticism. Thorburn concludes with an overview in which modern fiction as a whole is seen to be less bleak, less devoted to wastelands than we have become accustomed to assume."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Wolodymyr T. Zyla and Wendell M. Aycock, eds. Joseph Conrad: Theory and World Fiction, Proceedings of the Comparative Literature Symposium, Vol. VII, January 23, 24, and 25, 1974. Texas Tech University Press, 1974.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Cicely Palser Havely. Heart of Darkness. Open University Press, 1973.

"This brief introduction and study guide to the novel is meant to situate it in the context of previous 19th-century novels and identify some of the significant developments it represents."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Sybyl C. Jacobson, Robert J. Dilligan, and Todd K. Bender. A Concordance to Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness. Southern Illinois University Press, 1973.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Antony Price. "Chronological Looping" in Nostromo. University of Malaya Library, 1973.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Norman Sherry, ed. Conrad: The Critical Heritage. Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1973.

"Conrad is one of the major novelists of the twentieth century and his works have attracted a great deal of important discussion. Cried up, as he said, as 'an amazing bloody foreigner writing in English,' dealing with people and places that were strange to the English mind, a writer unique for his time in the technique of fiction and in his viewpoint, he was the object of both acclaim and bewilderment. This selection of critical comments traces the reception of Conrad's writings in England and America, from the first novel Almayer's Folly through to Suspense. It includes the views of H. G. Wells, Arnold Bennett, George Gissing, John Galsworthy, Ford Madox Ford, Henry James, E. M. Forster, Leonard Woolf and Somerset Maugham, and gives Conrad's personal response to their criticism."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Ian Watt, ed. Conrad: The Secret Agent, A Casebook. Macmillan Press, 1973.

"This casebook brings together modern criticism, along with a selection of earlier reviews and comment. The introduction discusses the variations and development of critical opinion. This book aims to give its readers a heightened sense of the interest and vitality of¬  The Secret Agent, and of the value of a critical response. Essays include John Galsworthy, 'Joseph Conrad: A Disquisition'; Thomas Mann, 'Joseph Conrad's The Secret Agent'; Hugh Walpole, from A Conrad Memorial Library; F. R. Leavis, from The Great Tradition; V. S. Pritchett, 'An Emigre'; Irving Howe, 'Conrad: Order and Anarchy'; Albert J. Guerard, 'A Version of Anarchy'; Robert D. Spector, 'Irony as Theme: Conrad's The Secret Agent'; Avrom Fleishman, 'The Symbolic World of The Secret Agent'; J. Hillis Miller, from Poets of Reality; Norman Sherry, 'The Greenwich Bomb: Outrage and The Secret Agent'; Ian Watt, 'The political and Social Background of The Secret Agent.'"

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Olivia Coolidge. The Three Lives of Joseph Conrad. Houghton Mifflin, 1972.

"Coolidge has here presented a man whose influence on letters has never been more strongly felt. She has sorted out the man from the myth, the fact from the fiction and the result is a biography this is directed to many young people who have already discovered the power of Conrad's works."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  John E. Saveson. Joseph Conrad: The Making of a Moralist. Rodopi, 1972.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Norman Sherry. Conrad and His World. Thames and Hudson, 1972.

"Henry James, the novelist, spoke of Conrad's 'immense treasure,' his 'inexhaustible adventures.' 'No one has known--for intellectual use--the things you know,' he wrote to this enigmatic 'Polish gentleman cased in British tar.' Conrad's wide experience of men and the world provided him with a perfect foundation on which to build the characters and situations of his novels. It is this experience which Sherry tries to bring so vividly to life in this brief biography with its unique collection of photographs. He shows Conrad the adventurer embarking on his maritime career at Marseilles, working his way up through the British Merchant Marine, journeying to the Far East and, most bitter experience of all, into the 'heart of darkness' of the Congo. But there is also the writer who, at the ending of his career at sea, had, despite the enthusiastic response of English men of letters such as Edward Garnett and Ford Madox Ford, a long struggle against public indifference, which he finally and triumphantly overcame with his best-selling novel Chance. There is an immediate attraction in the richness of incident and cosmopolitan spirit of Conrad's writing derived directly from his own experience as a seaman in many parts of the world. The haunting atmospheres of his stories, set in exotic surroundings, are conveyed by a fastidiously masterful prose. But the fascination of such novels as Lord Jim and Under Western Eyes, and stories such as 'Typhoon' and 'Youth' lies much deeper: at the root of them all is a probing examination of complex moral situations viewed with an unblinking and impartial eye."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Bruce Johnson. Conrad's Models of Mind. University of Minnesota Press, 1971.

"In an attempt to understand the psychological assumptions that lie behind the creation of a work of fiction, Johnson analyzes a number of Conrad's novels and short stories, identifying and explaining Conrad's changing conceptions or models of mind. Johnson traces Conrad's steady progression away from deductive psychology, involving such entities as will, passion, ego, or sympathy, toward a flexible, and, for the period, new psychology that had implications for his entire development as a writer. Johnson argues for certain affinities between Conrad's models of mind and those of a number of other writers, among them, Schopenhauer, Sartre, and Pascal. He shows that one aspect of Conrad's psychology was closely allied to the Schopenhauerian concept of will but that when he wrote Lord Jim, Heart of Darkness, and NostromoConrad moved toward an existential concept of self-image and self-creation similar to Sartre's psychology in Being and Nothingness. Finally, Johnson examines Conrad's novel The Rescue and tries to show how hopeless it was for Conrad to return to earlier conceptions of mind after he had explored the new existential models."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Ugo Mursia. The True "Discoverer" of Joseph Conrad's Literary Talent and Other Notes on Conradian Biography with Three Unpublished Letters. [Tipografica Varese], 1971.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Royal Roussel. The Metaphysics of Darkness: A Study in the Unity and Development of Conrad's Fiction. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1971.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Virendra K. Roy. The Romance of Illusions: A Study of Joseph Conrad, with Special Reference to Lord Jim and Heart of Darkness. Doaba House, 1971.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Robert Secor. The Rhetoric of Shifting Perspectives: Conrad's Victory. Pennsylvania State University Press, 1971.

"Behind this study of Victory are three assumptions about reading Conrad. (1) Conrad is largely interested in states of consciousness. (2) Conrad will often objectify states of consciousness. (3) Conrad's art of shifting perspectives lies in the portrayal of varying states or vehicles of consciousness within a single work. In this short monograph, Secor tries to show a mature Conrad more sure of his method as he moves from the consciousness of one character to that of another, each recreating experience in its own image. In so doing, he attempts to answer a body of criticism which sees Victory as an indication of late Conrad's failing powers. This evaluation stems from the work of Douglass Hewitt and Thomas Moser, who along with Albert Guerard had so much to do with reversing the reputation of the novel in our time. All three object to the novel's rhetoric and shifts in point of view. In the last section of this essay, Secor suggests, as a way of releasing readers from the usual expectations of more realistic novels or more traditional romances, the usefulness of Northrop Frye's system for the ironic mode."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Norman Sherry. Conrad's Western World. Cambridge University Press, 1971.

"This books traces the sources of Heart of Darkness, Nostromo,The Secret Agent and some of the short stories related to these novels. As in his Conrad's Eastern World, Sherry provides a blend of biographical reconstruction (especially of Conrad's own harrowing experiences in the Congo) and of investigation into the originals of the main incidents and characters--Kurtz, Nostromo, Verloc and many of the minor figures as well. It has been possible to show in the study of Conrad's source material a movement away from analyses of personal experience or the narrated experiences of others to a manipulation of material entirely outside the bounds of his own experience. This change reveals also a movement in interest from personal and private dilemmas to wider and more public concerns, and shows Conrad developing a progressive sense of the frightening underside of human society. Finally, Sherry considers the play of Conrad's mind over his source material and traces the development of individual works from the given sources to the completed fiction. This reconstruction of Conrad's original materials and the tracing of their development into literary works of great distinction gives us a unique insight into Conrad's preoccupations and art."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Bruce E. Teets and Helmut E. Gerber. Joseph Conrad: An Annotated Bibliography of Writings about Him. Northern Illinois University Press, 1971.

"The primary purpose of the bibliography is to offer scholars of Joseph Conrad a representative body of criticism of his works from 1895 through 1967. This volume contains 1,977 entries. Many of the entries annotated here have not been listed before in either general or individual bibliographies."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Robert J. Andreach. The Slain and Resurrected God: Conrad, Ford and the Christian Myth. New York University Press, 1970.

"This book analyzes the significance of the heroic archetype in the fiction of Joseph Conrad and Ford Madox Ford. Beginning with their two novels of collaboration, The Inheritors and Romance, thematic pattern is developed to its most mature expression in Conrad's The Secret Agent, Under Western Eyes, and Victory, and in Ford's Parade's End. The heroic myth reveals our society as a parody of a culture that was once whole and vital: the hero's evolution through the stages of separation, initiation, and return mirrors the cycle by which a moribund tradition must be slain--and resurrected. Each novelist, then, recasts the material of The Inheritors in his later fiction, using the archetypal quest not only as a structural device, but as a metaphor for the cultural quest to revitalize the dead god--that is, the cultural heritage--by resurrecting the Son. And the Christian myth is reborn, though it is a myth made new for our age."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Borys Conrad. My Father: Joseph Conrad. Coward-McCann, 1970.

"An entirely new light is shed on Joseph Conrad, the man, in this loving and illuminating portrait by his son Borys, nicknamed 'Boy' by his famous father. While much has been written about Joseph Conrad, the great novelist, this is the first time that he has been examined as a family man. J. C. (as he was known to friends and family) is shown in both light and serious moments--at work on Pent Farm (where the bulk of his best writing was done ); driving his first motorcar with great aplomb and inexperience through a fence; exploding at his friends in a wild display of his famous Polish temper, yet treating his wife with the utmost devotion and patience during her long illness. Joseph Conrad, in this unique portrait, is revealed also as a very sociable being with a host of friends, and there are numerous delightful character sketches of such literary figures of the period as Henry James, John Galsworthy, Hugh Walpole, Ford Madox Ford, and Stephen Crane. Borys Conrad's recollections of his father help the reader understand tie private life of the man behind some of the finest writing of a great era in English letters."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Christopher Cooper. Conrad and the Human Dilemma. Barnes & Noble, 1970.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Richard Curle. The Last of Conrad. The Joseph Conrad Society (UK), [1970].

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Wildred S. Dowden. Joseph Conrad: The Imaged Style. Vanderbilt University Press, 1970.

"In this work, Dowden traces the development of Conrad's use of imagery in the major works and in a number of short stories and novelettes. Special attention is given to The Rescue; since it was begun immediately after Conrad had completed An Outcast of the Islands, put aside, and finished 23 years later, its composition spans most of Conrad's creative career. Revisions in the manuscript of the first version attest to the author's changing awareness of the purposes and function of imagery. Beginning with an uncomplicated idea of uses of imagery, in which a single image is used again and again to evoke the same or similar emotions, Conrad, by the time he had finished his two early novels recognized the inadequacies of this one-to-one relationship of image with theme. Several short stories written at this time exhibit a more sophisticated use of imagery, in which central and related images form patterns which support theme and character development. It is upon this foundation that his reputation as an artist rests. Furthermore, an analysis of his last works indicates that, however much his imaginative powers may have failed, Conrad remained, technically, a master of his craft."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Douglas Lindsay Mensforth. Lord Jim (Conrad). Basil Blackwell, 1970.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Przemyslaw Mroczkowski. Conradian Commentaries.¬  [Panstwowe Wydawn Naukowe], 1970.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Jadwiga Nowak. The Joseph Conrad Collection in the Polish Library in London. The Polish Library, 1970.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Robert S. Ryf. Joseph Conrad. Columbia University Press, 1970.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Leon Seltzer. The Vision of Melville and Conrad: A Comparative Study. Ohio University Press, 1970.

"This book sets out to explore those affinities that, viewed together, show the spiritual likeness of two great writers. By investigating the parallels in the most important works of Melville and Conrad, Seltzer attempts to illustrate how a profoundly similar outlook on life led to the preoccupation with similar themes and techniques. This book is a treatment of the resemblances between Melville and Conrad, and their common aesthetic and philosophical attitudes reveal many of the underlying complexities of their art."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Mohammad Yaseen. Joseph Conrad's Theory of Fiction. 2nd. ed. Asia Publishing House, 1970.

"Yaseen argues that although as a creative artist Conrad had little sympathy for generalization and abstract theorizing, his own literary work bears full testimony to his conscious interest in the theoretic aspects of the art of fiction. Thus his cogitations on the art of novel as expressed in his letters and non-fictional prose assume vital significance for students of Conradiana. As against the 'brave trumpetings' of many of his contemporaries Conrad seems to retain a true balance of approach. To him art is always pragmatical and evolves with the maturity of the writer. He views the problems of his art as an inalienable part of creative activity by singling out fiction for the expression of his 'inner self' and remains loyal to his creed in his literary career. There is no glaring hiatus between his analysis and creation, between his theory and practice. We can certainly know more about Conrad and his creative genius by reading his letters and essays written from time to time. All other gifts came to him naturally and instinctively. The so-called obscurity and difficulty in understanding the novelist's work may be easily surmounted if we grasp his favourite tenets made so abundantly clear in his miscellaneous writings. Yaseen aims at studying Conrad as a whole in the light of his fictional as well as his non-fictional writings. This study is thus also an attempt at a re-assessment of Conrad's works. Conrad's novels and stories have been analysed and evaluated as illustrations of his cogitations on the art of fiction through the different phases of his growth as a novelist. Yaseen believes that Conrad's thoughts on the function and nature of fiction, even apart from their relation to his creative works, are important in themselves and merit close study."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Theodore G. Ehrsam. A Bibliography of Joseph Conrad. Scarecrow Press, 1969.

¬ ¬ ¬  Lawrence Graver. Conrad's Short Fiction. University of California Press, 1969.

"Conrad's best short stories have always been considered among the finest reflection of his genius. Long novels like Lord Jim and Under Western Eyes may begin superbly and slack off; the irony of The Secret Agent harden; but 'Heart of Darkness,' 'Typhoon,' and 'The Shadow-Line' are as fine as anything of their kind in English and their flaws are venial. In this study, Graver tries to provide a complete and authoritative account of Conrad's development as a short story writer. Drawing on neglected and unpublished materials and studying in detail Conrad's relationship with his audience, Graver seeks to present a fuller understanding of the oddly varying quality of Conrad's work over the length of his career. To illuminate the major novels, he examines 'Youth,' 'Heart of Darkness,' 'Amy Foster,' 'The Secret Sharer,' and 'The Shadow-Line' in the light of ideas expressed by Conrad in a forgotten letter of 1901. Extending the implications of these ideas, Graver attempts to demonstrate how Conrad's best fiction invariably treats characters who act out of the clash between egoism and altruism in a complex and distinctively Conradian way. In the inferior stories, however, this conflict--which helps give Conrad's finest work its familiar tonality--is fragmentary or non-existent. By investigating Conrad's method of publishing his stories, Graver tries to show how the lesser tales were compromised by Conrad's need to provide high-paying magazines with stories of moderate length, thematic simplicity, and straightforward structural design."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Frederick R. Karl. A Reader's Guide to Joseph Conrad. Rev. ed. Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1969.

"Karl's extended analysis of the novels and short fiction of Conrad was first published in 1960. Since its publication, a great number of excellent studies--psychological and political as well as literary--have appeared dealing with this most complex novelist. Karl has completely revised and updated his book to accommodate this recent body of scholarship. In particular, he has provided a new interpretation of Conrad's most famous story, 'Heart of Darkness.' Conrad was a persistent experimenter in the form of the novel; his many innovations in structure have become the technical heritage of the twentieth-century writer of fiction. Karl pays special attention to the ways in which Conrad used his techniques to express his intensely rich literary themes. He also focuses, in his work-by-work guide, on the significance of Conrad's fiction for today."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Robert E. Kuehn, ed. Twentieth Century Interpretations of Lord Jim: A Collection of Critical Essays. Prentice-Hall, 1969.

"This volume of essays examine the genesis, the art, and the philosophical scope of Lord Jim in which Conrad brought to dramatic fulfillment his own most persistent and finally unanswerable questions about the nature of humanity. The volume includes an introduction by Robert E. Kuehn; Conrad's 'Author's Note' to Lord Jim; pertinent letters by Conrad to John Galsworthy and Edward Garnett; brief commentaries by David Daiches, Robert B. Heilman, Douglas Hewitt, Frederick Karl, and F. R. Leavis; along with a collection of extended essays.¬  These essays include Eloise Knapp Hay, 'Lord Jim: From Sketch to Novel'; Jocely Baines, 'Guilt and Atonement in Lord Jim'; Paul L. Wiley, 'Lord Jim and the Loss of Eden'; Tony Tanner, 'Butterflies and Beetles--Conrad's Two Truths'; and Albert J. Guerard, 'Sympathy and Judgment in Lord Jim.'"

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Robert F. Lee. Conrad's Colonialism. Mouton & Co., 1969.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Juliet McLauchlan. Conrad: Nostromo. Edward Arnold, 1969.

"This book is designed to provide to provide a study of Nostromo, which is widely studied in high school and universities.¬  The emphasis is on clarification and evaluation; biographical and historical facts, while they may of course be referred to as helpful to an understanding of particular elements in Conrad's work, will be subordinated to critical discussion.¬  What kind of work is this? What exactly goes on here? How good is this work, and why? These are the questions which McLaughlan tries to answer.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Elmer A. Ordonez. The Early Joseph Conrad: Revisions and Style. University of the Philippines Press, 1969.

"The book on Conrad's revisions and style attempts to show that Conrad, in his first years as a writer, deliberately and conscientiously developed verbal patterns which are central to his early style. Ordonez argues that the revisions which he undertook in two phases (not true of all his works)--from manuscript to print (serial or book) and from serial to first edition--indicate that in his years from literary apprenticeship to master craftsmanship (taking place well within the early period of his career) he was concerned with stylistic matters: rhythm, description, and tendered and reported speech. Ordonez also suggests that these verbal aspects transcend linguistic boundaries and determine to a considerable extent the structure of the stories. As a result, this discussion can not be kept on a purely linguistic level; esthetic problems are invariably linked with any verbal effort in prose fiction."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  John A. Palmer, ed. Twentieth Century Interpretations of The Nigger of the "Narcissus": A Collection of Critical Essays. Prentice-Hall, 1969.

"A collection of essays including: John A. Palmer, 'Introduction'; James E. Miller, Jr., 'The Nigger of the "Narcissus": A Re-examination'; Vernon Young, 'Trial by Water: Joseph Conrad's The Nigger of the "Narcissus"'; Cecil Scrimgeour, 'Jimmy Wait and the Dance of Death: Conrad's Nigger of the"Narcissus"'; Albert J. Guerard, 'The Nigger of the "Narcissus"'; Marvin Mudrich, 'The Artist's Conscience and The Nigger of the "Narcissus"'; Ian Watt, 'Conrad Criticism and The Nigger of the "Narcissus"'; Avrorn Fleishman, 'Conrad's Early Political Attitudes'; Norris W. Yates, 'Social Comment in The Nigger of the "Narcissus"'; Paul L. Wiley, 'The Nigger and Conrad's Artistic Growth'; Bernard C. Meyer, M.D., 'On the Psychogenesis of the Nigger.'"

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Stanton de Voren Hoffman. Comedy and Form in the Fiction of Joseph Conrad. Mouton & Co., 1969.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  C. T. Watts, ed. Joseph Conrad's Letters to R. B. Cunninghame Graham. Cambridge University Press, 1969.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Douglas Hewitt. Conrad: A Reassessment. 2nd ed. Bowes & Bowes, 1968.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Paul Kirschner. Conrad: The Psychologist as Artist. Oliver & Boyd, 1968.

"In this biographical, critical, and comparative study of Conrad, Kirschner begins by sketching his life up to 1894, the starting-point of his literary career. Making full use of the latest research by Polish scholars, and of some personal reminiscences by one of Conrad's neighbours in Kent, Kirschner argues that Conrad's early experience of life helped to determine his imaginative and philosophical outlook. In the next four chapters, Kirschner explores Conrad's vision of the self in isolation, in society, and in relation to the opposite sex. Instead of applying any preconceived psychological or psychoanalytical theory to Conrad's work, Kirschner considers Conrad as himself a psychologist and reveals the subtlety and the versatility with which he applied his psychological ideas to his own personal experience and also to material derived from other sources. The unity of Kirschner's critical approach is meant to safeguard him against the danger of misinterpreting any of Conrad's individual works; and in challenging such misinterpretations, he offers his own solutions of some of the critical problems which arise in connection with Lord Jim, 'Heart of Darkness,' Chance, and especially 'The Secret Sharer.' In the last two chapters of this book, Kirschner examines in detail the influence that several other contemporary imaginative writers exerted an Conrad's work. Conrad's extensive borrowings, from Turgenev. Anatole France, and above all from Maupassant, have escaped critical recognition for half a century. Yet, Kirschner attempts to show that they reveal how Conrad's imagination worked, thus helping to clarify his artistic intentions, and may also enable us to see Conrad in his true intellectual tradition, which owed more to Continental than to English thought and literature."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  S. B. Liljegren. Joseph Conrad as a "Prober of Feminine Hearts": Notes on the Novel The Rescue (with an Appendix). A. B. Lundequistska Bokhandeln, 1968.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  John A. Palmer. Joseph Conrad's Fiction: A Study in Literary Growth. Cornell University Press, 1968.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Dale B. J. Randall, ed. Joseph Conrad and Warrington Dawson: The Record of a Friendship. Duke University Press, 1968.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  J. I. M. Stewart. Joseph Conrad. Dodd, Mead & Co., 1968.

"In this book, Stewart presents not only a compact biography but a critical survey of Conrad's major novels. In turn Conrad's foremost achievements are discussed: The Nigger of the 'Narcissus'; Youth; Heart of Darkness; Typhoon; The End of the Tether; Lord Jim; Nostromo;The Secret Agent; Under Western Eyes; Chance; Victory;The Secret Sharer; and The Shadow-Line. The discussion concludes with an Epilogue--look backward, and forward to the closing years of Conrad's life."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Avrom Fleischman. Conrad's Politics: Community and Anarchy in the Fiction of Joseph Conrad. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1967.

"This study disputes the conventional view of Conrad's political conservatism. By setting Conrad's thought and fiction in their contemporary intellectual milieu, Fleishman reveals them as a complex response to the forces of anarchy threatening the modern world--a response that did not express despair of either the value or the possibility of organic community. Previous critics, Fleishman contends, have divorced the political strains in Conrad's fiction from their contexts, and have oversimplified his thought as a result of current political attitudes. Conrad's Politics, on the other hand, attempts to place this modern novelist in a two-centuries-old tradition of Continental political thought and English literary practice. In his account of Conrad's Polish background, Fleishman tries to show that the dominant influence within Conrad's family was exerted from the democratic-revolutionary side, not the mystical and conservative side represent by his father. Fleishman traces the evolution of Conrad's response to contemporary events from his youthful ultramontanism to his later belief in specific social and international goals. He describes the influence of such diverse contemporary movements as the Fabian Society and the Oxford neo-Hegelians, and shows how the organic view of history that underlay Conrad's curiosity about the past found expression in a tragic vision which did not exclude hope for the future."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  James Guetti. The Limits of Metaphor: A Study of Melville, Conrad, and Faulkner. Cornell University Press, 1967.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Robert R. Hodges. The Dual Heritage of Joseph Conrad. Mouton & Co., 1967.

"Joseph Conrad was the product of two contrary influences  which, as long as they existed in the form of an opposition or tension  in his mind, gave rise to his best writings. The first influence was  that of his father, Apollo Korzeniowski, a romantic Polish poet and  patriot committed to the contemporary doctrines of national messianism,  and a highly emotional and forceful personality. The other influence on  conrad was that of his maternal uncle, Tadeusz Bobrowski, his guardian  after his father‚Ä™s death. He taught Conrad to fear the instability,  impracticality, and egoism of his father, and encouraged him to control  these by settling in a definite profession. His steadying moral  influence became for Conrad a type of beneficient relationship between a spiritual father an a young man whom he initiates into maturity and a  profession, the traditional ethics of which become a bulwark of duty  against evil and irrationality. Several times in both of his sea and  literary careers Conrad repeated this relationship. Filling however,  both the roles of sone and of father. Conrad‚Ä™s literary productive inner conflict ended when he reconciled his two inner forces and discharched  his patriotic debt to Poland and his father. The reconciliation occurs  in 'Prince Roman' (1911), a portrait of a Polish insurrectionary hero.  In this character Conrad combines traits drawn from both the  Korzeniowskis and the Bobrowskis which he once thought opposed or  incompatible. During world War I and afterwards in essays intended to  influence British policy in Poland‚Ä™s favor, Conrad expressed his  uncritical loyalty to Poland, using ideas of romantic nationalism  incompatible with his earlier political pessimism. After many years of  embarrassed silence, he openly defended his father by insisting on the  similarities of both Korzeniowskis and Bobrowskis as patriotic, socially conservative Poles. Thsi reconciliation of the ocnflicting forces in  hsi mind, reinforced by belated popularity and deeply felt patriotic  demands during the war, wrought changes in Conrad‚Ä™s personality and  writing. Accepting conventional and sentimental vlaues such as  anti-intellicutalism, middle-class gentility, and an easy tolerance for  human faults, he saw himself in the role of an old seaman-patriot and  harmless professional ententainer. In the first two chapters of this  study the author is discussing the nature of the two influences on  Conrad and their direct effect on his mind and his writing. The last two chapters discuss Conrad‚Ä™s apparent reconciliation of the two  influences, his own uncritical acceptance of his father‚Ä™s nationalism,  and the unfortunate effects of these inner changes upon his personality  and his writing."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Bernard C. Meyers. Joseph Conrad: A Psychoanalytic Biography. Princeton University Press, 1967.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Claire Rosenfield. Paradise of Snakes: An Archetypal Analysis of Conrad's Political Novels. University of Chicago Press, 1967.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Donald C. Yelton. Mimesis and Metaphor: An Inquiry into the Genesis and Scope of Conrad's Symbolic Imagery. Mouton & Co., 1967.

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