Andrzej Busza. Conrad's Polish Literary Background and Some Illustrations of the Influence of Polish Literature on His Work. Antemurale. Vol. 10. 1966, 109-255.

"Conrad's Polish background has already received a certain amount of attention, especially from his biographers. However, there has been no systematic study of the influence of Polish literature on his work. In this book, Busza tries, first, to show why one should expect to find traces of Polish literary influence in Conrad's writings, and, secondly, to give some illustrations of that influence. The main aim of this book is to show that the 'cultural baggage,' which Conrad took with hi to sea, was no as slight as is sometimes imagined.¬  Busza attempts to show this, first, by a discussion of the two men who dominated Conrad's early life: his father, Apollo Korzeniowski, and this maternal uncle, Tadeusz Bobrowski; and, second, by an examination of the various Polish circles and milieus with which Conrad came in contact in his childhood and youth.¬  Further, Busza attempts to show that the cultural background, which Conrad thus acquired, and especially Polish literature, remained a vital force throughout his life, and, in fact, exerted a considerable influence over his writing.¬  To try to substantiate this, several illustrations from Conrad's works are given, where Busza argues the influence of Polish literature is particularly evident."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Robert Morris. Barron's Simplified Approach to Lord Jim Joseph Conrad. Barron's Educational Series, 1966.

"This book is meant to be a key to real understanding and enjoyment of Lord Jim.¬  Morris discusses Conrad as a person to know; tells why and how he was inspired to write as he did; and explains customs and historical background to Lord Jim. Morris then gives a detailed, analytical summary of the novel--spiced with direct quotes and allusions--to illustrate the actual style, content and meaning of the novel. This book contains an introduction to Conrad and his work, followed by a chapter-by-chapter plot synopsis and critical commentary, 'A Discussion of the Novel in Retrospect,' 'Study Guide Questions,' a 'Selected Criticism' section, and a bibliography."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Robert Morris. Barron's Simplified Approach to Victory Joseph Conrad. Barron's Educational Series, 1966.

"This book is meant to be a key to real understanding and enjoyment of Victory.¬  Morris discusses Conrad as a person to know; tells why and how he was inspired to write as he did; and explains customs and historical background to Victory. Morris then gives a detailed, analytical summary of the novel--spiced with direct quotes and allusions--to illustrate the actual style, content and meaning of the novel. This book contains an introduction to Conrad and his work, followed by a chapter-by-chapter plot synopsis and critical commentary, 'A Discussion of the Novel in Retrospect,' 'Study Guide Questions,' a 'Selected Criticism' section, and a bibliography."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Marvin Mudrick, ed.Conrad: A Collection of Critical Essays. Prentice-Hall, 1966.

"While critics agree on the importance and influence of Conrad, they have not arrived at a consensus about the nature of his achievement or the relative merits of his novels. The essays in the volume, attempt to provide a consistent and comprehensive estimate. These writings introduce us to the private crises of Conrad's heroes, illuminate Conrad's idea of honor and justice, explore the dramatic and moral issues woven into his narratives, and ultimately document the vitality and mystery of Conrad's powerful vision of life. Essays include Marvin Murdrick, 'Introduction'; Max Beerbohm, 'The Feast'; Albert Guerard, 'On The Nigger of the "Narcissus"'; Marvin Murdrick, 'The Originality of Conrad'; Stephen A. Reid, 'The "Unspeakable Rites" in Heart of Darkness'; Douglas Hewitt, 'Lord Jim: Conrad the the "Few Simple Notions"'; Paul L. Wiley, 'Conrad's Solitaries'; Daniel Curley, 'Legate of the Ideal'; Jocelyn Baines, 'Nostromo: Politics, Fiction, and the Uneasy Expatriate'; Morton Dauwen Zabel, 'Introduction to Under Western Eyes'; Thomas Moser, 'Conrad's "Later Affirmation"'; Ford Madox Ford, 'Conrad on the Theory of Fiction.'"

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Neville H. Newhouse.Joseph Conrad. Evans Brothers, 1966.

"Conrad is the novelist of the extreme situation attracted by the lushly romantic, concerned with the highly colored, the implausible, the mysterious. His themes, written decades ago, still speak with vigor and meaning for today. Conrad's characters are imprisoned in the fundamental isolation of every human being and try desperately, in an unconcerned universe, to give their lives meaning. He was one of the first writers to lay bare the tensions between black and white. Chance, Nostromo,The Nigger of the 'Narcissus,' Heart of Darkness, Typhoon, The Outcast at the Islands, Lord Jim, and other works are seen from the point of view of story and character, narration, thematic content, impressionistic style. This book sets out the background to Conrad's life and times, furnishes a conspectus of his work and signposts the criticism that is most important to present-day study. Newhouse's aim has been to select the essentials of each subject and to present them in such a way as to give a concise, useful and realistic perspective to the reader of today."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Edward W. Said. Joseph Conrad and the Fiction of Autobiography. Harvard University Press, 1966.

"Using Conrad's letters for the first time as a key to the understanding of his mind and his work, Said shows that there is an important parallel between the way Conrad viewed his own life and the manner as well as the form of his stories. Unlike most critics, Said chooses Conrad's short fiction as most characteristic of his work and, using the insights gained from a phenomenological approach, analyzes Conrad's structures of consciousness to reveal how Conrad literally formed his life and then reformed it in his fiction."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Norman Sherry. Conrad's Eastern World. Cambridge University Press, 1966.

"A book for those interested in Conrad's life and work and/or literary detection performed. Sherry investigates how well Conrad knew the East and how the original material he garnered there was supplemented from other sources; he also shows what Conrad made of his experiences, thus revealing clearly what the artist;'s own contribution was."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Norah Smaridge. Master Mariner: The Adventurous Life of Joseph Conrad. Hawthorn Books, 1966.

"Conrad was a man of great abilities and astonishing contrasts. He was the author of some of the finest novels ever written in English, including Lord Jim--yet he could not speak a word of English until he was twenty-one. He achieved world fame as an author--but his great ambition was to be a seaman, and he left landlocked Poland when he was sixteen to go to sea. During the next twenty years he worked his way up from cabin boy to captain in the British merchant marine while voyaging to the West Indies, Australia and the Orient. He tried gun-running, wooed a beautiful adventuress, and traveled a thousand miles up the Congo River into the heart of Africa. In his travels he came to know the fascinating seamen--adventurers, traders and ne'er-do-wells of exotic ports from Marseille to Bangkok. Then, when he was thirty-six, Conrad's life changed abruptly. He finished and published a story he had begun writing in dull moments at sea. The story, about the fate of a man he had met in Borneo, was an immediate success, and the career of Joseph Conrad, author, was launched. Conrad lived quietly in England for the rest of his life, writing. Into his masterpieces of fiction went the people, events, scenes and stories from his life at sea. In his books, the master story-teller re-created the adventurous life of Joseph Conrad, master mariner."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  David R. Smith. Conrad's Manifesto: Preface to a Career, the History of the Preface to The Nigger of the "Narcissus" with facsimiles of the manuscripts. Philip H. and A. S. W. Rosenbach Foundation, 1966.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Jerry Allen. The Sea Years of Joseph Conrad. Doubleday & Co., 1965.

"Henry James once wrote to Conrad: 'No one has known--for intellectual use--the things you know, and you have, as the artist of the whole matter, an authority that no one has approached.' Today, of course, Conrad is considered one of the foremost English authors of the twentieth century; and his seafaring experiences--during the hazardous shipping era when 130 vessels could be listed by Lloyd's of London as lost in a single day--provide valuable insight into Conrad's later career as a novelist. This biography is the product of ten years of extensive research, utilizing the records discovered in fifteen countries, the majority never before published. Many of Conrad's adventures, developed in his fiction, are presented here for the first time. These include his contact with the 1876 revolution in Colombia and his use of it in Nostromo; the sensational sea incident of 1880 and the part played in it by a young man Conrad knew, re-created in Lord Jim; the two shipboard deaths drawn upon for The Nigger of the 'Narcissus'; the Congo episode behind Heart of Darkness; the American with whom Conrad fought a duel in Marseilles and wrote of in The Arrow of Gold; the original of his hero 'Tom Lingard'; the people and history of the Malay settlement in Borneo (a wilderness village long hunted for and only now identified through the discovery of gravestones in the jungle) brought into such novels as Almayer's Folly, Lord Jim, An Outcast of the Islands, and The Rescue. Illustrated with many rare and previously unpublished photographs, and including an Appendix detailing Conrad's voyages and naming his shipmates, The Sea Years of Joseph Conrad offers a narrative for the general reader and new material for the scholar."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Ted E. Boyle. Symbol and Meaning in the Fiction of Joseph Conrad. Mouton & Co., 1965.

"This book examines in detail the manner in which Conrad constructed his fictional worlds and the moral principles which he intended these worlds to embody. Thus, both the special genius which Conrad brought to English literature and the meaning of some of his most significant novels and stories are more clearly defined. Boyle's analysis of the complex pattern of symbol and myth in 'Heart of Darkness' suggests that the story is not as bitterly pessimistic as some critics would maintain; that it is, a statement of qualified optimism. Boyle also examines Almayer's Folly, The Nigger of the 'Narcissus,'Lord Jim, 'Typhoon,' 'The Secret Sharer,' The Shadow-Line, Nostromo, The Secret Agent, andVictory and attempts to show that in each story Conrad employed intricate symbolism in order to demonstrate his conception of the moral order of the universe. Such an examination seeks to defend Conrad against some of the attacks of his severer critics. Thus, Boyle argues that Almayer's Folly is not so ill-conceived as some readers would suggest; that the often-attacked tediousness of the first chapters of The Shadow-Line does not represent a failure of Conrad's creative powers; that Nostromo is a novel with a definite center of interest; that The Secret Agent is not an exercise in bitterness and despair; that Victory represents a moral affirmation, and that the character of Axel Heyst is in perfect harmony with the fictional world which Conrad has created. Throughout the book, the focus is on the symbolic intricacies of Conrad's narratives."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Leo Gurko. The Two Lives of Joseph Conrad. Thomas Y. Crowell, 1965.

"Conrad's two lives, as master mariner and superlative storyteller, are chronicled here with a sensitive appreciation of the writer's art. For Conrad's novels are more than retellings of the dramatic events in which he participated and the exotic lands to which he sailed, and Gurko shows how this material (colorful in itself) was transmuted into something far greater: novels and tales of searching intelligence, full of life and truth. Conrad's personality was complex, his life demanding. Gurko gives a portrait of both."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  J. Hillis Miller. Poets of Reality: Six Twentieth-Century Writers. Harvard University Press, 1965.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Edmund A. and Henry T. Bojarski, eds. Joseph Conrad: A Bibliography of Masters' Theses and Doctoral Dissertations, 1917-1963. University of Kentucky Libraries, 1964.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  C. B. Cox. Nostromo (Joseph Conrad): Notes on English Literature. Basil Blackwell, 1964.

"This book is an introduction to Nostromo and is designed primarily for the school, college, and university student, although it is hoped that they will be found helpful by a much larger audience. Three aims have been kept in mind: (A) To give the reader the relevant information necessary for his fuller understanding of the work. (B) To indicate the main areas of critical interest, to suggest suitable critical approaches, and to point out possible critical difficulties. (C) To do this in as simple and lucid a manner as possible, avoiding technical jargon and giving a full explanation of any critical terms employed. This introduction contains questions on the text and suggestions for further reading."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Zdzislaw Najder, ed. Conrad's Polish background: Letters to and from Polish Friends. Trans. Halina Carroll. Oxford University Press, 1964.

 

The main contents of this volume are some seventy  letters to Conrad fro his uncle and guardian, Tadeusz Bobrowski, and  over a hundred from Conrad to various Polish correspondents. Many of  these letters are previously unpublished and almost none had before  appeared in English. Some of Conrad‚Ä™s letters belong to the time when he wrote no English and many contain invaluable biographical or  psychological material, including information about his marriage.  Bobrowski‚Ä™s letter shed further light on Conrad personality; it is in  fact his writings that provide most of our knowledge of the first thirty years of Conrad‚Ä™s life. There are also two letters from Bobrowski,  setting out details of Conrad‚Ä™s family and financial position; and  Conrad‚Ä™s ‚ÄėPolitical Memorandum‚Ä™ drafted in 1914, in which he expresses  his ideas about the future of Europe. There are notes explaining the  circumstances of the letters and an Introduction giving general  information about the social, cultural, and political environment in  which Conrad grew up, his later contacts with Poles, and the influence  of his Polish readings on his books. The intention of the volume is to  provide a standard work for any future study of Conrad‚Ä™s Polish  heritage. Apart from its documentary and academic value, the book will  have a wider appeal as the first comprehensive account of a lesser-known side of this unique bi-national writer.

 

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Eloise Knapp Hay. The Political Novels of Joseph Conrad: A Critical Study. University of Chicago Press, 1963.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Tony Tanner. Conrad: Lord Jim. Edward Arnold, 1963.

"This book is therefore designed to provide a study of Lord Jim, which is widely studied in the universities.¬  The emphasis is on clarification and evaluation; biographical and historical facts, while they may, of course, be referred to as helpful to an understanding of particularly elements of Conrad's work, will be subordinated to critical discussion.¬  What kind of work is this? What exactly goes on here? How good is this work, and why? These are the questions which Tanner tries to answer."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Leo Gurko. Joseph Conrad: Giant in Exile. Macmillan Publishing Co., 1962.

"Conrad is one of the giants of modern literature. He wrote his great works in a language that he did not even begin learning until the age of twenty, yet he became not only a great English novelist but a supreme stylist and master of the language. In this study of his life and work, Gurko attempts to show us the whole of Conrad's achievement in a new way. Here are the dramatic highlights of Conrad's childhood in Poland and his youth in France, and the change in his late thirties to a new career as a writer with its long, anguished period of public neglect climaxed by ultimate success. As a boy, Conrad shared his father's exile in Russia, and afterward fled from his native Poland. As a seaman in the British merchant marine and later as a writer in England, he remained an outsider. Exile became one of Conrad's great themes: his characters are not only removed from their native place but exiled from their own selves which they passionately seek to regain. In a series of chapters, Gurko tries to throw fresh light on The Nigger of the 'Narcissus,'Lord Jim, Heart of Darkness, Nostromo,The Secret Agent and the other classic tales of the celebrated storyteller. Conrad's complex personality and his remarkable qualities as an artist emerge as the heroic achievement of a man who prophetically defined the world in which we live and helped shape the sensibility that enables us to grapple with it."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Adam Gillon. The Eternal Solitary: A Study of Joseph Conrad. Bookman Associates, 1960.

"This book presents a critical analysis of Conrad's life and works, examining the reasons for Conrad's preoccupation with the theme of isolation and its relation Conrad's own life, to the cultural and literary heritage of Poland and to his reading of English and French literature. Gillon discusses such subjects as the power of illusion, which time and drives Conrad's heroes to cut themselves off from organized society to follow their own dreams, only to feel in the end that they have committed what amounts to an act of treason. Gillon examines the themes of betrayal and redemption and the role of fate in Conrad's works and shows Conrad's inner contradictions and his conflicting feelings about betrayal and romantic egoism. Conrad's handling of these themes demonstrates affinities with the romantics and the Victorians, but even more with the moderns, for he is primarily engaged in a quest for true knowledge of the self. This search reveals basic ideas that are implied throughout the body of Conrad's work, the chief precept being that human beings cannot bear moral solitude without going mad or being destroyed, and if for one reason or another they must follow their dreams, they must also accept punishment for their voluntary isolation. Conrad's work is related to that of Polish romantic and positivist writers and also to the work of a number of contemporary English, American, and European novelists, including Faulkner, Woolf, Malraux, Camus and Joyce. Gillon singles out Jean-Paul Sartre as a novelist who exhibits both significant similarities and dissimilarities with Conrad. He compares Conrad's philosophy with Sartrean existenialism, tracing extremely interesting parallels. Gillon argues that Conrad's heroes suffer as much as Sartre's do, almost invariably meeting with violent deaths or languishing in solitude, but even in a state of isolation or defeat they are an affirmation of human fidelity and compassion."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  James L. Guetti, Jr. The Rhetoric of Joseph Conrad. Amherst College Press, 1960.

"This pamphlet considers a use of language that is peculiar to Conrad--language that has been called 'magical' and 'spellbinding' as well as 'disparate,' 'repetitious,' and 'obscure.' Guetti attempts to describe this language and its effects upon the meaning of the world of adventure, upon the meaning, even, of life."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Frederick R. Karl. A Reader's Guide to Joseph Conrad. Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1960.

"One of the most widely discussed modern authors who wrote in English, Joseph Conrad was a persistent experimenter in the form of the novel; his many innovations in structure have become the technical heritage of the 20th-century writer of fiction. In this extended analysis of Conrad's novels and shorter fiction, special attention is given to tile significance of the works today and to the ways in which Conrad used his techniques to implement his literary ideas."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Ludwik Krzyzanowski, ed. Joseph Conrad: Centennial Essays. The Polish Institute of Arts and Sciences in America, 1960.

"The essays assembled here have--with one exception--originally appeared in The Polish Review. In their present form they represent--again with one exception--revised and augmented and, it is hoped, improved versions of the articles as originally printed. The underlying theme of the essays included in this volume is the exploration of Conrad's Polish antecedents, connections and interests, a subject that still seems to require considerable study and elucidation. Such a study may ultimately form the basis for a convincing demonstration of Conrad's link with, and indebtedness to, the canon of Polish literature. Essays include: Ludwik Krzyzanowski, 'Introduction'; Alexander Janta, 'Conrad's Place and Rank in American Letters'; Ludwik Krzyzanowski, 'Joseph Conrad's "Prince Roman": Fact and Fiction'; Przemyslaw Mroczkowski, 'A Conrad Family Heirloom at Harvard'; Ludwik Krzyzanowski, 'Joseph Conrad: Some Polish Documents'; Adam Gillon, 'Joseph Conrad in Present-Day Poland'; Ludwik Krzyzanowski, 'Joseph Conrad: A Bibliographical Note.'"

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  R. W. Stallman, ed.The Art of Joseph Conrad: A Critical Symposium. Michigan State University Press, 1960.

"In this volume are most of the critically rewarding analyses of Conrad's works by European and American writers and critics including Andre Gide, Thomas Mann, Dorothy Van Ghent, and Robert Penn Warren, among others."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Osborn Andreas. Joseph Conrad: A Study in Non-Conformity. Philosophical Library, 1959.

"This study of complete fiction of Joseph Conrad was written for those for whom literature is a quest, an excited search for meaning that will illuminate issues deeply troubling to both writer and reader. To uncover the basic nature of the tension created and resolved in each of Conrad's novels and short stories, the author has identified the main character and analyzed the problem with which he struggles. Attempting to probe into ever deeper levels of meaning embedded in the narratives, he aims to reach a bedrock foundation which unites all of Conrad's forty-two works in one interrelated cluster of meanings. His argument is that the principal situation with which Conrad was concerned was the point of contact between the individual and the social group. Since every Conrad narrative bears upon this theme, from one direction or another, the phenomenon of non-conformity is thus seen to be the novelist's absorbing interest and even his obsessive preoccupation. The neurosis which hovered over, and often deeply involved, Conrad's characters has become, fifty years later, the predominant neurosis of our time. Its investigation, therefore, affords us both deeper involvement in the author's work and further enlightenment about ourselves."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Jocelyn Baines. Joseph Conrad: A Critical Biography. McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1959.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Jerry Allen. The Thunder and the Sunshine: A Biography of Joseph Conrad. G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1958.

"Based on new and unpublished material, this is a biography of Joseph Conrad, one of the world's great novelists. A passionate, intense man, Conrad led a life as dramatic as his novels. There was little of the world he did not know, little of danger or tragedy. When illness ended his sea-roving at the age of thirty-seven, he turned to writing novels so realistic and wide in compass that they are listed among the world's classics. Conrad's youthful romance at the age of nineteen was as stormy as his seaman's career, identified for the first time in this biography is the original of Rita in The Arrow of Gold, the 'woman of all time' over whom he claimed to have fought a duel in Marseilles. Conrad throughout his life never disclosed her name, and the mystery of her name has long been known as the 'Conrad Enigma.' This biography seeks to provide a new understanding of the effects of Conrad's life upon his writing. Giving special attention to Conrad's boyhood in Poland and Russia, and emphasizing the years he lived in Marseilles, this biography focuses on much about the formative years of one of the most mysterious and romantic figures in modem English literature."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  William Blackburn, ed. Joseph Conrad: Letters to William Blackwood and David S. Meldrum. Duke University Press, 1958.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Albert J. Guerard. Conrad the Novelist. Harvard University Press, 1958.

"It is only recently that Conrad, the tragic novelist of first rank, has begun to emerge from the misconceptions with which his later sentimental and inferior novels have obscured him. Guerard focuses on the full complexity of Conrad's art and mind; and attempts to explain the way in which the novelist found his own fictional world and his own methods. Examining all of Conrad's novels from Almayer's Folly to Suspense, Guerard centers his attention on a few a major books, the master works of impressionism with which Conrad criticism must come to terms. Two in particular, Lord Jim and Nostromo, receive perhaps the most thorough study yet made. Under the sympathetic but rigorous questioning, Conrad appears as an artist who was able to turn his temperamental traits of evasiveness and detachment into great fictional strengths, a writer whose greatest creativity was aroused by the inward conflict of a strong, rational skepticism and an underlying sympathy for the outlaw. Numerous illustrative comparisons show Conrad as the forerunner of such writers as F. Scott Fitzgerald, Graham Greene, and William Faulkner, and they strongly suggest that his insights would have been better understood in today's world than they were in his own. Guerard pays particular attention to the part played by technique--in the development of Conrad's writing, and attempts to show that the varying quality of Conrad's style is a reliable vital index to his fiction. The significance of these discussions carries far beyond technique itself into mysterious interactions of personality and subject matter. Exacting and uncompromising criticism of a great writer can give the appearance on occasion of attacking the greatness without measuring or illuminating the writer, in a sense belittling both the critic and the subject. Without glossing a fault or minimizing a failure, Guerard leaves Conrad an even more towering figure than before, his rewarding and almost infinite complexity accessible to the reader in new depths of perspective."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Mieczyslaw Brahmer and Polska Akademia Nauk, Komitet Neofilologiczny, eds. Joseph Conrad Korzeniowski: Essays and Studies, Studia i Szkice. Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 1958.

"These essays were reprinted from a special number 1-2, 1958 of Kwartalnik Neofilolgiczny (Neophilological Quarterly), which was issues by the Neophilological Committee of the Polish Academy of Sciences in connection with the Conrad Centenary Celebrations held in Warsaw during the 3rd and 4th of December 1957. Essays include Richard Curle, 'My Impressions of the Conrad Centenary Celebrations'; M. C. Bradbrook, 'Conrad and the Tragic Imagination'; Jocelyn Baines, 'Joseph Conrad--Raw Material into Art'; Ivo Vidan, 'Some Aspects of Structure in the Works of Conrad'; Witold Chwalewik, 'Conrad and the Literary Tradition'; Stanislaw Helsztynski, 'Joseph Conrad--czlowiek i tworca'; Wit Tarnawski, 'O artystycznej osobowosci i formie Conrada'; Ivo Vidan, 'Conrad in Yugoslavia'; Roza Jablkowska, 'Z angielskich i amerykanskich studiow nad Conradem'; and Roza Jablkowska, 'Polska conradystyka za granica.'"

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Richard Curle. Joseph Conrad and His Characters: A Study of Six Novels. William Heinemann, 1957.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Robert F. Haugh. Joseph Conrad: Discovery in Design. University of Oklahoma Press, 1957.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Irving Howe. Politics and the Novel. Horizon Press, 1957.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Gerard Jean-Aubry. The Sea Dreamer: A Definitive Biography of Joseph Conrad. Trans. Helen Sebba. Doubleday & Co., 1957.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Kenneth A. Lohf and Eugene P. Sheehy. Joseph Conrad at Mid-Century: Editions and Studies 1895-1955. University of Minnesota Press, 1957.

"Published in the centennial year of Joseph Conrad's birth, this is the first comprehensive bibliography of the writings by and about this important author. Though there is a current revival of interest in Conrad's work, criticism and scholarship devoted to this celebrated novelist and short story writer have lagged behind that of other major twentieth-century authors. This compendium of data about the growing body of Conrad literature should stimulate further interest by bringing together a vast amount of reference information that has been widely scattered until now. The bibliography lists works by Conrad, including serializations, significant translations, and film adaptations, and writings about Conrad, including book and periodical material in western languages, appearing from 1895, the year of publication of Almayer's Folly, through 1955. There are a total of 1200 numbered entries containing approximately 3000 items. In the first section, devoted to Conrad's works, the enumeration of English and American editions is followed by the listing of translations. Most of Conrad's essays and may of his novels were serialized before they appeared in book form, and these serializations are listed here also. The second section lists the studies of Conrad's life and works, as published in books, pamphlets, periodical articles, and reviews. Data are included on bibliographies, commemorative issues of periodicals, criticism of individual works and of Conrad's work in general, and parodies and other miscellany."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Thomas Moser. Joseph Conrad: Achievement and Decline. Harvard University Press, 1957.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Janina Zabielska. Joseph Conrad, 1857-1924: Catalogue of an Exhibition Organised by the Polish Library at the Request of the Union of Polish Writers Abroad to Commemorate Mr. John Conrad's Lecture at the General Sikorski Historical Institute on the 30th of Oct. 1956. The Polish Library, 1956.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  E. H. Visiak. The Mirror of Conrad. Werner Laurie, 1955.

"For Visiak the mirror of Conrad is that long row of tales and novels which are so astonishing a legacy from the first part of this century. It is a mirror in parts crystal clear, and in others clouded and crazed; yet, to find the whole man, it must everywhere be scrutinised with minute attention, and this is what Visiak has sought to do. Parts of Conrad's work are frankly autobiographical; parts are reputedly so; and parts are pure romance, yet all reflect some strange facet of this strange, impressive and fascinating genius. For Conrad was a man of formidable genius, in his life as well as in his work. This biography is at once a record of that life and a study of the work it produced."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Paul L. Wiley. Conrad's Measure of Man. University of Wisconsin Press, 1954.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Douglas Hewitt. Conrad: A Reassessment. Bowes & Bowes, 1952.

"In this book, Hewitt presents a general critical view of the novels and short stories of Conrad. He begins by showing how the settings and structure of Conrad's works enable him to present a world which is convincingly real and at the same time naturally symbolic of the inner problems of his central characters. Detailed considerations of such works as 'Heart of Darkness,' Lord Jim and Nostromo follow, and an analysis of 'The Secret Sharer' leads to a discussion of the change that came over his work at about the time when this story was written. Two of the later novels are studied in detail and their weaknesses related to Conrad's evasion of the pessimism of the earlier books."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Oliver Warner. Joseph Conrad. Longmans, Green and Co., 1951.

"This one of the Men and Books series and is both a life of Conrad and a critical assessment of his work. It is an introduction to Conrad and is based on the latest published research. It includes a bibliography and illustrations."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Oliver Warner. Joseph Conrad. Longmans, Green & Co. for The British Council and National Book League, 1950.

"This pamphlet is one of the Bibliographical Series of Supplements to British Book News. It is a short appreciation of Conrad's works and also contains a select bibliography."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Walter F. Wright. Romance and Tragedy in Joseph Conrad. University of Nebraska Press, 1949.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  F. R. Leavis. The Great Tradition: George Eliot, Henry James, Joseph Conrad. George W. Stewart, Publisher, [1948].

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Albert Guerard, Jr. Joseph Conrad. New Directions, 1947.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  M. C. Bradbrook. Joseph Conrad, Jozef Teodor Konrad Nalcez Korzeniowski: Poland's English Genius. Cambridge University Press, 1941.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  J. H. Retinger. Conrad and His Contemporaries: Souvenirs. Minerva Publishing Co., 1941.

"Retinger's life paralleled  closely that of Conrad. They were both born in Poland and came as young men  to England, where they met when Conrad was just beginning to carve for  himself the literary career which lifted him to the heights of world renown.  The two friends moved in the same circles and shared intellectual interests.  Their friendship lasted until Conrad's death. Conrad showed to his friend  Retinger a side of his life unknown to his other contemporaries and  biographers. Their common roots and language formed a strong bond between  them, and it was Retinger who brought Conrad back to Poland after an absence  of forty years. By an odd coincidence, Conrad's homecoming occurred on the  day when war was declared in 1914. This book is a collection of souvenirs and reminiscences by the author,  containing insights into Conrad's life and personality."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  John A. Gee and Paul J. Sturm, trans. and eds. Letters of Joseph Conrad to Marguerite Poradowska, 1890-1920. Yale University Press, 1940.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  John Dozier Gordan. Joseph Conrad: The Making of a Novelist. Harvard University Press, 1940.

"This study is focused upon the early years of his long career as a writer, when he drove himself to become a professional. It attempts to picture the dominant factors in his life and the way in which they affected his work. By bringing the problems of the creator into closer touch with the creation, it may supplement a reading of the stories themselves. Without attempting to be a full biography, the study necessarily draws upon Conrad's reminiscences and letters, some of them unpublished, and upon biographical studies. The play of temperament in his development as sailor and writer, the influence of poverty and illness on his work could not otherwise be displayed. Without attempting to be a general criticism, the study analyzes the sources of his stories. It traces the evolution of plot and characterization through the manuscript and typescript, never before discussed in print, of three early novels. It compares manuscript, typescript, serial and book publication to show Conrad's unremitting care for style."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  A Conrad Memorial Library: Addresses Delivered at the Opening of the Exhibition of Mr. George T. Keating's Conrad Collection in the Sterling Memorial Library, 20 April 1938; with a Check List of Conrad Items Supplementary to Mr. Keating's Published Catalogue. Yale University Library, 1938.

"This volume is an issue of The Yale University Library Gazette, (volume 13, number 1, July 1938). It contains the following essays: William McFee, 'Conrad after Fourteen Years'; John Archer Gee, 'The Conrad Memorial Library of Mr. George T. Keating'; and James T. Babb, 'A Check List of the Additions to A Conrad Memorial Library, 1929-1938.'"

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  J. Edward Mason. Joseph Conrad. A. Wheaton & Co., 1938.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Ernest Crankshaw. Joseph Conrad: Some Aspects of the Art of the Novel. John Lane, 1936.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Jessie Conrad. Joseph Conrad and His Circle. E. P. Dutton & Co., 1935.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Frank W. Cushwa. An Introduction to Conrad. Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1933.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Jesse Conrad.Did Joseph Conrad Return as a Spirit?. International Mark Twain Society, 1932.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Wm. Wallace Bancroft. Joseph Conrad: His Philosophy of Life. Stratford, 1931.

"The author discusses the  extent to which Conrad's philosophy of life was revealed through his writings. It is interesting as well as  significant that Conrad, who regarded philosophy as a 'web of illusions' should in his novels. This book represents the effort to reveal the central principle  of the novels of Joseph Conrad, especially from the nucleus of such works as  discover it, and to permit these tales from his gifted pen to amplify his  complex and ununified system. Conrad is an artist, and, for that reason, it is  difficult to do justice to him by separating his story-material from the  philosophy implied. His novels do not illustrate separately the various aspects  of his central theme, nor does any one story portray in complete form a  single aspect of it. The difficulty, therefore, of a work of this kind, is simply  one of method. The purpose of this volume is to allow Conrad to speak for  himself through the medium that he selected for the expression of his purpose. There is no attempt made here to superpose upon his view of life one that is alien to his own. It were easier to classify one's own impression--but that  would be sure to violate the principle of justice somewhere. The following  argument is not an exact classification. The overlapping in point of theme  prohibits such. Rather, it is an attempt to present in a logical form the degrees of  emphasis, and to outline these in a manner that may serve to interpret the  whole."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  R. L. Megroz. Joseph Conrad's Mind and Method: A Study of Personality in Art. Faber & Faber, 1931.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Arthur J. Price. An Appreciation of Joseph Conrad. Simpkin, Marshall, [1931].

"This book professes to be no more than an introduction to a very great subject. Its object is to examine some of the fundamental elements of Conrad's excellence. Price analyzes some of the elements of Conrad's craftsmanship and attempts to reveal the power and originality of Conrad and the sincerity of his passion.¬  Price attempts to capture something of the secret genius of Conrad and the moods in which it most clearly manifested itself. Price also considers Conrad's narrative method with its hesitations in the development of the them and occasional complications in his works. This book is meant to provide a guide and companion to the study of Conrad's works."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  John Galsworthy. Two Essays on Conrad. [Ebbert & Richardson], 1930.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Liam O'Flaherty. Joseph Conrad: An Appreciation. E. Lahr, [1930].

"The author presents his views on Conrad. Especially treats Conrad's romanticism and Conrad's 'God of the British Empire.'"

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Gustav Morf. The Polish Heritage of Joseph Conrad. Sampson Low, Marston & Co., [1930].

"A commentary on the personal side of Conrad's art, on its spiritual sources, and on the precise autobiographic elements in his novels. The author has an intimate knowledge of Conrad's work, of his family history, and of all the biographical details. He has availed himself, moreover, of a certain amount of new material, of which the most important part consists of about seventy letters written to Conrad by his uncle Tadeusz."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  George T. Keating, ed. A Conrad Memorial Library: The Collection of George T. Keating. Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1929.

"This book contains descriptions of the Keating collection of early editions, manuscripts, typescripts, and so forth. There is an entry for Conrad's various books with a brief discussion of the book, descriptions of the copies, facsimiles of original title pages, manuscript pages, typescript pages, and letters. Introductions written by such authors as Hugh Clifford, Ford Madox Ford, Arthur Symons, Hugh Walpole, Richard Curle, Jesse Conrad, G. Jean-Aubry, John Galsworthy, and Edward Garnett."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Richard Curle. The Last Twelve Years of Joseph Conrad. Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1928.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Richard Curle, ed. Letters: Joseph Conrad to Richard Curle. Crosby Gaige, 1928.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ Edward Garnett, ed. Letters from Joseph Conrad, 1895 to 1924. Bobbs-Merrill, 1928.¬ 

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Thomas James Wise, ed.A Conrad Library: A Catalogue of Printed Books, Manuscripts and Autograph Letters by Joseph Conrad (Teodor Josef Konrad Korzeniowski). Printed for Private Circulation, 1928.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Sir Hugh Clifford. A Talk on Joseph Conrad and His Work. The English Association, Ceylon Branch, 1927.

"A lecture delivered to the Ceylon branch of the English Association in 1927."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  G. Jean-Aubry. Joseph Conrad: Life and Letters. 2 vols. Doubleday, Page & Co., 1927.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Jesse Conrad, ed. Joseph Conrad's Letters to His Wife. Privately Printed, 1927.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Jessie Conrad. Joseph Conrad as I Knew Him. Doubleday, Page & Co., 1926.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Joseph Conrad: Including an Approach to His Writings, A Biographical Sketch, A Brief Survey of His Works, and a Bibliography. Doubleday, Page & Co., 1926.

"A brief introduction to Conrad's life and works, meant to advertise Doubleday's Collected Edition of Conrad's works.¬  This pamphlet is illustrated with drawings and photographs and includes 'Introduction: Joseph Conrad--His Life and Works'; 'The Approach to Joseph Conrad,' which briefly discusses Conrad's works, particularly 'Youth,' Victory, 'Typhoon,' The Rover, and A Personal Record; 'Joseph Conrad: A Sketch,' a brief biography of Conrad'; 'The History of Joseph Conrad's Books' by Richard Curle; and 'Joseph Conrad: A Bibliography,' a bibliography of primary sources."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  G. Jean-Aubry. Joseph Conrad in the Congo. Little, Brown and Co., 1926.

"This is a description of Conrad's African travels and includes excerpts from his correspondence of the time."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  R. L. Megroz. A Talk with Joseph Conrad and a Criticism of His Mind and Method. Elkin Mathews, 1926.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Elbridge L. Adams. Joseph Conrad: The Man/ John Sheridan Zelie A Burial in Kent. William Edwin Rudge, 1925.

"The longer of the two articles which make up this book was written with the thought that the public should know more of the human side of an author who was fast becoming its literary idol, but it was not published without Conrad's consent. Fearful of saying anything that might offend Conrad's sensitive nature and thus perhaps bring to ruin a happy friend ship, Adams took the precaution of sending him the manuscript with the request that he should dispose, delete, or even destroy, as it might please him. Originally published in a limited edition, this volume also includes 'A Burial in Kent' by John Sheridan Zelie together with some bibliographical notes."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Arthur Symons. Notes on Joseph Conrad, with Some Unpublished Letters. Meyers & Co., 1925.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Joseph Conrad: A Sketch with a Bibliography, Illustrated with Many Drawings by Edw. A. Wilson. Doubleday, Page & Co., 1924.

"This pamphlet is a short illustrated survey of Conrad's life with a chronological bibliography of Conrad's works."

¬ ¬ ¬  Richard Curle. Joseph Conrad: The History of His Books. J. M. Dent & Sons, 1924.

"Influenced by Conrad's Author's Notes to his books, in this pamphlet, Curle provides background information about Conrad's books through Notes on Life and Letters."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Ford Madox Ford. Joseph Conrad: A Personal Remembrance. Little, Brown and Co., 1924.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Ernst Bendz. Joseph Conrad: An Appreciation. N. J. Gumpert, 1923.

"This book does not aim at being either comprehensive or exhaustive. It was written simply with a view to chronicle the phases of an intellectual experience and to justify an estimate founded on nothing more pretentious than a feeling of deep admiration and a sense of temperamental affinity with Conrad's works. This study addresses itself chiefly to readers already familiar with Conrad's writings, who will be pleased, perhaps, to find in it some echoes of their own past emotions."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Christopher Morley. Conrad and the Reporters. Doubleday, Page & Co., 1923.

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Ruth M. Stauffer. Joseph Conrad: His Romantic-Realism. The Four Seas Company, 1922.

"The author bases her study on the following observation of Richard Curle, Conrad's official biographer: 'The spirit of his work is realistic in a rare and curious manner, for it is a realism which includes romance as one of its chief assets.'"

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  J. G. Sutherland. At Sea with Joseph Conrad. Grant Richards, 1922.

"Captain Sutherland tells the story of Joseph Conrad's trip with him on the brigantine H. M. S. Ready, a Q-boat and the first sailing vessel commissioned in the Royal Navy in World War I. Includes much naval lore."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Thomas J. Wise. A Bibliography of the Writings of Joseph Conrad (1895-1921). 2nd ed., rev. and enl. Printed for Private Circulation, 1921.

"The second (and revised) edition of Thomas J. Wise's only bibliography of a living writer. It was based on his own excellent collection of books and manuscripts of Conrad and on that of Richard Cure, friend of Conrad and Wise. This revised edition has 125 pages of text as against the 107 of the first edition (1920) and 29 facsimiles of title pages and MSS as against 21. One more work Notes on Life and Letters (1921) was added to the collations and notes of a variant of A Set of Six and a forged title page."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Hugh Walpole. Joseph Conrad. Nisbet & Co., [1916].

"Reconstructs a brief but cogent synthesis of Conrad the man-of-action and Conrad the man-of-letters."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  James Huneker, E. F. Saxton, and Richard Curle. Joseph Conrad. Doubleday, Page & Co., [1915].

"This pamphlet contains maps, photographs, and brief essays.¬  It is a revision of the earlier pamphlet by the same title that was published probably in 1913. The essays include Huneker's 'Joseph Conrad: A Pen Portrait,' Saxton's 'The Romantic Story of Joseph Conrad,' 'Biographical and Autobiographical' (condensed from Richard Curle's Joseph Conrad: A Study), and 'Novels and Stories' (condensed from Richard Curle's Joseph Conrad: A Study).' This pamphlet also includes a list of books by Conrad up to Victory and selections from reviews of Conrad's works."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Wilson Follett. Joseph Conrad: A Short Study of His Intellectual and Emotional Attitude toward His Work and of the Chief Characters of His Novels. Doubleday, Page & Co., 1915.

"Follett undertakes an account in general terms of Conrad's intellectual and emotional attitude toward his work and of the most striking characteristics of that work. Other matters of importance--his life and its relation to his work, his growth in proficiency, stage by stage, his special contribution to the body and permanency of the short story as a form, his style in the more limited sense of verbal fitness and phrasal beauty, his humor (most often grim, ironical, or sardonic, but once at least, in 'The Duel,' airily frivolous), his treatment of character and of places and things, his assimilation of French and Russian influences, and his probable importance to modern realism--Follett does not discuss. He attempts to deal, if at the lower levels, with something more than a negligible part of the whole truth."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  Richard Curle. Joseph Conrad: A Study. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1914.

"Curle remarks that the facts in this book relative to Conrad have Conrad's authorization, the criticism is entirely Curle's. In this book, he considers a number of points, such as the individual structure of Conrad's books, the general sense of form, the realism and romance of Conrad's art, his feeling for tragedy, and his philosophy. Curle dislikes the habit of writing gravely about the philosophy of novelists, suggesting that to do so is to wreck the meaning of a work of art, although it is true enough that art divorced from ideas soon wears very thin. A novelist's philosophy, as such, does not concern literary criticism, although his personality, which is largely the accumulative effect of his outlook, does. Curle's object in writing this book is also to arouse interest in the greatest and least known of Conrad's novels, in the marvelous Nostromo. This study of Conrad has been written both for the students of his work and for those who know nothing about it. But throughout Curle aims at real criticism and not mere statement or, in fact, mere rhetoric."

¬ ¬ ¬ ¬  James Huneker and Alfred A. Knopf. Joseph Conrad. Doubleday, Page & Co., [1913].

"This pamphlet contains maps, photographs, and brief essays.¬  The essays include Huneker's 'Joseph Conrad: A Pen Portrait' and Knopf''s 'Joseph Conrad: The Romance of His Life and of His Books.' The pamphlet also contains a bibliography of primary works through 1912 with a brief publication history of each, as well as various photographs of Conrad and his family."

 

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